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Tetralogy of fallot

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Tetralogy of Fallot

Tetralogy of Fallot
(TOF) is a congenital heart defect which is classically understood to involve four anatomical abnormalities (although only three of them are always present). It is the most common cyanotic heart defect, representing 55-70%, and the most common cause of blue baby syndrome.

"Tetralogy" denotes a four-part thing in various fields, including literature, and the four parts the syndrome's name implies are its four signs. This is not to be confused with the similarly named teratology, a field of medicine concerned with abnormal development and congenital malformations, which thereby includes tetralogy of Fallot as part of its subject matter.

As such, by definition, tetralogy of Fallot involves exactly four heart malformations which present together:

Arterial Switch Operation

Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) is a congenital heart defect in which the normal anatomic positions of the aorta and pulmonary artery are transposed (i.e., the aorta originates from the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery arises from the left ventricle). In babies with TGA, deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle exists the aorta and enters the systemic circulation; oxygenated blood from the left ventricle returns to the lungs via the pulmonary artery. The majority of babies born with TGA will not survive to their first birthday without a surgical correction.


Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC), also known as total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage(TAPVD) and total anomalous pulmonary venous return(TAPVR), is a rare cyanotic congenital heart defect (CHD) in which all four pulmonary veins are malpositioned and make anomalous connections to the systemic venous circulation.(Normally, pulmonary venous return carries oxygenated blood to the left atrium and to the rest of the body). A patent foramen ovale or an atrial septal defect must be present, or else the condition is fatal due to a lack of systemic blood flow.

Transposition of great Arteries
Transposition of the great vessels (TGV) is a group of congenital heart defects (CHDs) involving an abnormal spatial arrangement of any of the primary blood vessels: superior and/or inferior vena cavae (SVC, IVC), pulmonary artery, pulmonary veins, and aorta. CHDs involving only the primary arteries (pulmonary artery and aorta) belong to a sub-group called transposition of the great arteries (TGA).