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Fda Approves Drug That Keeps Prostate Cancer At Bay For Long Time

Prostate cancer is one of the cancers that are common across the world. As per the statistics, it is known to be the second most common cancer in the US and UK and the sixth common cause of cancer deaths in the world. As far as India is concerned, the rates earlier were quite lower compared to other countries. But, the recent data shows a rise in cancer in India and mostly in urban areas, particularly since the time.

prostate cancer

Now, males hormones are such that they only aid in worsening the symptoms and aiding its spread. Nubeqa or darolutamide is the new drug that is effective in controlling cancer spread. It has the ability to increase the life expectancy rates by more than double.

As per the trial investigator and medical direction Neal Shore of Carolina Urologic Research Centre Prostate cancer particularly that’s spread across the other body parts is highly sensitive to the spread fast under the influence of male hormones like testosterone and testosterone metabolites.

Shore added the initial trials of the drug were a success as the tolerance was quite good events unique to ARIs that were observed in the earlier trials are not observed with darolutamide. Only that certain side effects like Nubeqa, rash and fatigue

He also added that the FDA approved the med only after it cleared the Phase III ARAMIS trial with positive results showing a rise in metastasis-free survival (MFS). Published in the New England Journal of Medicine earlier this year, had carried out the trial that involved 1509 participants who were provided with 600 mg of the oral drug two times a day or a placebo alongside ADT. The randomized trial was multicenter, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled on men with nmCRPC and under the treatment of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with higher chances of turning out to be metastatic.

Robert Lacaze, executive member of the pharmaceuticals division as well as strategic business head at Bayer stated that Nubeqa’s approval had opened gates to a new therapy that aids in extending MFS besides allowing physicians more flexibility in treating men having nmCRPC.

As per Matthew Smith, MD, Ph.D., director at the Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Centre in Boston for Genitourinary malignancies program, The approval of Nubeqa has opened the gates for a new option in prostate cancer treatment. He added that the objective of the treatment was to curb the spread of cancer besides controlling therapy side effects as Patients usually do not exhibit any typical symptoms of MFS.

Stomach Cancer – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis And Treatment

Stomach cancer is one of the most common cancers in India particularly in northeastern parts of India. Hospital-based data from Mizoram shows around 30 percent of the admitted cancer patients suffering from gastric cancers.

Alike other cancers symptoms of stomach cancer are not apparent in the beginning and are similar to symptoms like common health conditions like flu and more. The symptoms of stomach cancer include –

Stomach Cancer

  1. Unexplained Weight loss

  2. Abdominal Pain

  3. Nausea and vomiting

  4. Discomfort in the area above the belly button

  5. Bloating post small meals

  6. Indigestion and heartburn

  7. Anemia

  8. Blood in stool

As you can see, the aforementioned symptoms aren’t really a reliable indication of cancer. A stomach virus or ulcer could also have these symptoms. The indicative symptoms only occur once the cancer is at an advanced stage.

Risk Factors

Risk factors for stomach cancer include the genetic history of cancer and smoking as well. Helicobacter Pylori bacterium infection is also one of the major causes of stomach cancer. Having said that, though many people who do have the germ inside them do not get cancer.

Stomach Cancer Treatment

Treatment is based on the diagnosis and could involve surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy. Usually, the treatment involves either curing the condition if it is in the early stages or controlling or relieving the symptoms. If the objective is cure then the treatment also concentrates on relieving the side effects. If the objective is to keep cancer under control, the treatment involves relieving symptoms that affect the quality of life like eating problems, pain, and bleeding. A second opinion is always advisable when it is about cancer.

Stomach Cancer Prevention

Though cancer is not preventable as such what you can do is only manage the risk factors through a balanced diet rich in fiber and citrus fruits, exercise, and physical activity.

Also Read: Stomach Worms in Children

Biopsy – All You Need To Know About Biopsy

For a variety of cancers the only way to provide a definite diagnosis about a condition is to carry out biopsy. The procedure involves the removal of a sample of cells or a tissue from the body for a closer examination.

Biopsy - Types of Biopsy

Types of Biopsy

Needle Biopsy – This type of biopsy is used mostly for diagnosis of cancers that can be felt through the skin. These include enlarged lymph nodes as well as breast nodes

  • Fine needle aspiration A needle and a syringe is used to get a sample from either breast lump or thyroid.

  • Vacuum assisted biopsy – There’s a suction device is used to extract more amount of fluid at a time so that the needle does not have to be inserted many times.

  • Image guided biopsy - Image guided biopsy uses a combination of imaging procedures like computerized tomography (CT), X-ray, sonography or MRI.

  • Core needle biopsy – It uses a needle that is larger with a cutting tip to draw the sample column of tissue.

Endoscopic Biopsy- An endoscope is used for taking tissues from the stomach during endoscopy. An endoscope is a tube with a camera at its end.

Incisional Biopsy – It involves taking a small part of skin

Excisional Biopsy – It involves taking a big part of the tissue/ tumor and requires a

Skin Biopsy – The procedure is carried out in order to check for lesions, rashes, growth, moles and lesions. The doctor takes samples of your skin surface with the help of a razor.

Punch Biopsy – A small instrument is used to punch a hole in the skin in order to get a sample.

Bone Marrow Biopsy – This biopsy involves taking samples of the bone marrow to check for cancerous or non-cancerous cells causing blood problems. A sample of the bone marrow is taken for diagnosis around cancers like lymphoma, leukemia and more.

Yes, biopsy does sound freaky but with the advanced procedures in place, its mostly a low risk as well as pain free procedure. So, if you are to undergo a biopsy procedure soon, do not panic. Stay calm, there’s nothing to worry about it.

*Sourced from the Internet

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Effects Of Cancer On Mental Health

Even today after so much advancement in the field of healthcare and medicine and so much rewarding research around cancer, it still remains a dreaded disease for people. Yes, innovation and research in the cancer field have brought about a lot of hope in terms of increasing longevity and improvement in quality of life, even today when we hear of been diagnosed with cancer, we do get goosebumps or a shocker. These days’ people have become quite vocal about disclosing the diagnosis to people and sharing their experiences, particularly celebrities are quite vocal about it. Even though, different people experience differently depending upon their individual mental health.

Most of us feel that having cancer means a physical condition that is life-threatening, causes fatigue, hair loss, and nausea. But, beyond physical issues, comes the mental health issue which we are not able to see. Some might tell about it while some may not but the fact of the matter remains that hearing the news does not get easier for anyone. There comes some point in life where most cancer patients slip into depression. Here are the most common feelings that storm through the minds of cancer survivors –

cancer Hospital in Bangalore

DEPRESSION – As per the National Cancer Institute, depression is known to affect around 15 to 25 percent of the cancer population. The condition is a result of diagnosis itself primarily. Other reasons for depression include cancer side effects, anxiety around the future with cancer, change in the image of self, to name a few. Depression is not the same as feeling sad, it comes with symptoms like fatigue, emptiness, mood swings, worthlessness to name a few.

GRIEF – Grief is not limited to the cancer patient but to his family and relatives as well for the period through the cancer battle. There is this term called anticipatory grief, apparently a mix of emotions that come when we live with a personal loss experience that results in grieving. This same grief is experienced by cancer patients and their relatives. Although it is normal to experience grief in such times, grieving alone isn’t advisable.

ANXIETY – Anxiety is one of the most common problems that cancer patients face around their future prognosis, future reports, treatment-related issues to name a few. The cancer community has also coined a special work for anxiety around future scans, calling it scanxiety.

All these mental health issues do need to be looked into and consulting a mental health specialist or therapist surely does help. Well, it important to understand that if mental health is better, the healing is faster and even the quality of life.

Risk of Breast Cancer in Trans Women Post Hormone Therapy Escalates To Over 45 Times

A study has found that trans-women undergoing gender change procedures increase their risk of getting breast cancer by over 46% as compared to men. The study was carried out on over 2000 trans-women and it was found that after undergoing the sex-change procedures 1 in 200 came under the risk scanner of breast cancer as compared to less than 8000 in men.

Cancer hospital in Bangalore

The studies that were carried out earlier have shown that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) does increase the risk of breast cancer, particularly in women post-menopause. Suggestively, it would increase the risk in trans-women undergoing hormone treatment.

As a study involving 2260 women, 15 cases of invasive breast cancer came to light of that of women of over 50 years of age post 18 years on an average of hormone therapy. Dr. Martin Den Heijer from Amsterdam University Medical Centre says that the issues and side effects of hormone therapy are knowns are discussed also with the people who undergo treatment.

Though the risk for naturally born women is one-third less, the experts from the Netherlands said that not only the patients but even the doctors needed to be aware of the fact that injections of female hormones do have an increased threat.

In Britain, there has been a drastic rise in the number of operations and it’s around 250 per year presently as compared to 54 around 2000. The researchers were unclear though if some of the cases were genetic or due to lifestyle because one of their transgender woman studies did carry the BRCA gene mutation that leads to breast cancer. Besides, it also showed that transgender men were at a considerably lower risk as compared to the female population. The study that determined the same involved 1229 trans men of which four had invasive breast cancer have diagnosed at 47 years post 15 years of hormone treatment.

Cancer Vaccine that can Cure 97% of Tumor from Mice Approved for Human Trial

Yes, you read that right. As per researchers of Stanford University, a vaccine they tested on mice has worked well in curing around 97% of the tumors in mice and is ready for human trial. According to SFGate. the human trial is scheduled to be conducted on 35 people suffering from lymphoma before the year ends.

The study was earlier tested on mice with cancers ranging from colon, breast and lymphoma. The results were welcoming, because this treatment cured around 87 mice out of the 90. The best part is that tumors in some mice had spread through other parts of the body too and even then they could be cured.

Cancer Vaccine That can Cure 97% of Tumor from Mice Approved for Human trial

As per the regional director of breast surgery at North-well Health Cancer Institute in Westchester, New York, even if the news was exciting enough, the results on animals might not be the same as that on humans. So, there is still a long way to go before the treatment works for particularly cancers other than lymphoma, viz. breast and colon.

Though it is called a vaccine, technically it ain’t. It is more of an immunotherapy. It is still given the name of a vaccine for a reason that is does contain a vaccine like injection. Also, as per the American society of clinical oncology, cancer vaccines can be used for referring treatment of cancer and preventing it from coming back. This vaccine involves the injection of the vaccine into the existing tumor. It does the role of reactivating the T cells. These T cells are responsible for infiltrating and attacking the cancer cells. But, as the tumor increases, the cancer tells suppress these T cells.
Immunotherapy is not something new though. It has been in practice for quite some time. A treatment called CAR t-cell therapy has been already approved some time back for leukemia as well as lymphoma. This therapy is about removing certain immune cells from the body and genetically engineer these cells so that they become capable of fighting cancer.

But, the advantage of this therapy over CAR T-cell therapy is that nothing from the body is to be removed or customized. Here it’s just targeted therapy where the doctors will be concentrating and attacking specific targets.

Though this study is one step forward in the direction to treat cancer but still it’s a long way to go.

Vydehi Institute of Oncology & Research Centre is one of the first centers in India to commission IGRT (Image guided radiation therapy) with respiratory gating apart from having other radiation equipment like High Dose Rate Brachytherapy (HDR).

*Source from the Internet

How Trojan Horse Treatment is the new Hope in Fighting Brain Tumor?

One of the common, as well as highly aggressive tumors of the brain, is the Glioblastoma multiforme. Once, the diagnosis is done, many patients die within a few months period. The survival rate for this tumor is as low as 6 patients out of 100 being able to live for 5 years period or more. This is one cancer that has shown a lot of resistance against treatments. One of the main reason behind the same is because this tumor invades the healthy brain tissues surrounding it, thus making it impossible to remove it surgically.

The research was carried out by engineering nanostructures containing both conventional chemotherapy drugs namely cisplatin and gold. These nanospheres were released to the tumor cells were taken from patients suffering from glioblastoma, taken to the laboratory, and grown followed by exposure to radiotherapy. The results were quite amazing and after 20 days, the tumor cells were totally destroyed without any proof of revival. The treatment was more effective than conventional chemotherapy because it enhanced the impact of it by helping gold to release electrons that caused damage to the DNA of the cancer cells and the overall structure as well.

Brain Tumor

This is a stepping stone in the treatment of aggressive brain tumors and as per the experts in Nanotechnology but work is still in progress before this treatment can be used for patients suffering from glioblastoma. The best part of the experiment was that it was carried out on tumors of glioblastoma patients, where the experts tested this approach drug-resistant tumors that were evolving.

The study was carried out by Dr. Colin Watts, a clinical scientist as well as an honorary consultant Neurosurgeon at the Clinical Neurosciences, and Mark Wellan, Professor of Nanotechnology and Fellow at St John’s College, University of Cambridge. This work of theirs is published in the Royal Society of Chemistry Journal call Nanoscale.

As per Professor Welland, their combined therapy seems to be highly effective particularly with live cell culture. This is definitely not a cure for cancer but throws light on how nanotechnology can play a significant role in fighting this aggressive cancer. Researchers also believe that this treatment procedure could be used for treating a variety of different and challenging cancer types.

The professor also harped upon the big advantage the nanoscientists had by working with clinicians because they could ensure that this science does have a clinical relevance through their involvement. This further ensures that the idea can be realized and implemented beyond the labs due to its clinical impact.

Zika Virus and Brain Cancer

One of the most dreaded diseases in India is Cancer and its various varieties. As on day there are a variety of treatments available to treat cancer through surgeries and therapies. But, we are yet to find a treatment that guarantees uprooting cancer from its root and even vaccines to avoid it altogether. Here’s some update on zika virus and its association with brain cancer.

Zika Virus and Brain Cancer

Most of us are aware of the havoc that Zika virus has been creating since its outbreak in the south african countries. But, we are less known of some new updates on the same. Researchers apparently have found out its usage in brain cancer treatment beyond its significant threat to the unborn children.

Though untested in humans yet, the results after testing on lab dishes and animals do reveal that could help treat brain cancer. Its already known that in infants and fetus, the zika targets the brain stem cells which are found in abundance in their brain cells and kills them. This usually increases the chances of neurological issues in new borns infected with zika. But, zika is not able to target adult brains with the same effectiveness. Comparatively, the effect is less severe plus these viruses have the ability to target and kill the lethal glioblastomas, stem cells which are lethal and are not affected by chemotherapy or radiation therapy and trigger the cancer again post treatment.

This research had further created rays of hope in treating brain cancer but requires further studies and tests to be carried out on animals before trying out on humankind. The reason mainly revolves around safety issues related to zika virus. Presently, there are research groups that are also testing other virus like polio, herpes and more in order to target glioblastomas. The use of zika virus as a brain cancer healer aide might require quite some time and a lot of further testing before it hits the cancer hospitals across the world.

All You Need To Know About throat Cancer

Though we as humankind haven’t had a breakthrough in completely treating every kind of cancer or a vaccine in protecting ourselves from it, if we are alert enough, there is every possibility of catching hold of it at an early stage so as to treat it well before it goes out of control. One such cancer type is throat cancer. As goes its name, it is the cancer of the throat and affects the pharynx as well as the larynx or voice box. While the pharynx is located above the esophagus and larynx and below the nasal cavity, the larynx is located in the front of the neck.

Throat-Cancer-causes-symptoms

Throat Cancer

The risk factors associated with throat cancer include -

  • A sexually transmitted virus known as human papillomavirus (HPV)
  • Addictions like tobacco, gutkha, alcohol, and smoking
  • A diet free from fruits and vegetables
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
  • Genetics viz inherited defects in certain genes
  • Asbestos exposure
  • Dental hygiene issues
  • Throat Cancer Stages

There are three different stages in throat cancer. If detected at an early stage throat cancer is pretty much treatable with surgery and radiation.

Symptoms of Throat Cancer
Symptoms of throat cancer include blood coughing, swelling in lymph nodes, trouble swallowing, and more. Other than that some of the potential symptoms of cancer include the following

  • Cough that rarely goes away
  • Constant Throat Clearance
  • Unexplained Weight loss
  • Sore Throat
  • Ear pain
  • Hoarseness

Stages of Throat Cancer
The levels of throat cancer are spread across four stages 0 to 3.
Stage 0 – This is the earliest stage of cancer wherein the tissue isn’t affected by any other areas except your throat.
Stage 1 – Cancer has not affected any other areas beyond the throat but the size of it is less than or equal to 7 cm.
Stage 2 – The size of the throat has crossed 7 cm but still hasn’t invaded other organs
Stage 3 – Cancer has spread up to nearby organs and tissues.
Stage 4 – Cancer has spread to distant organs as well as lymph nodes

Throat Cancer Diagnosis
For diagnosis, the doctor or oncologist may ask to do a biopsy or a fine needle aspiration. The biopsy recommended could be either a conventional biopsy or an endoscopic biopsy. The doctors would further recommend a few tests for determining the stage of your cancer. These include a CT scan, PET scan, or an MRI test.

Treatment of Throat Cancer
The treatment would be typically based on the stage of cancer. It could include removal of the tumor and radiation and chemotherapy later on. It is a prolonged process and not a matter of few days. Repeated tests would have to be carried out to determine how successful the surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy therapy have been. Based on the reports the trajectory of the further treatment would be derived.

Recovery Issues
Throat cancer complications after the surgery and treatment could include disfigurement of the neck and face primarily. This though can be fixed to a certain extent through surgery. The other issues that a patient may face during recovery include breathing and swallowing difficulty, trouble while speaking and skin hardening around the neck.

Cancer of any kind is a condition which if caught hold of early on can be treated and many times completely eradicated but this requires you to be alert and keep an eye on your health like a hawk. Regular health checkups are advisable for the same.

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Gut Bacteria as an Anti – Aging Agent – An Overview

Gut Bacteria as an Anti - Aging Agent

Gut bacteria in the years to come can help reduce the effects of aging, rather could be of great help in slowing down aging process. This could be possible with the help of supplements derived from gut bacteria. These bacterial genes and compounds can also decrease the rate of tumor progression inside our body besides amyloid beta accumulation, a compound known to be related to Alzheimer’s disease, as per University of Texas Health Science Center.

The scientists and researchers fraternity is well aware that the body interacts with millions of microbes called the microbiomes, inside the body. These microbiomes tend to influence the metabolic and cognitive activities as well as the aging process. Scientists at the Huffington Center are investigating on the possibility of importance of genetic composition of microbiomes for long life.

Experimentation
An experiment was carried out on laboratory work C. elegans as doing it on mammals was quite challenging technically. The characteristics of C. Elegans are very much similar to that of human biology and are simple, transparent organisms with a short life span of upto 3 weeks. This aids in rapid collection of data.

The experiment involved deleting one gene each from the 4000 genes at a time in an e.coli bacteria library to study the effects of each one. The researchers fed each individual mutant bacteria to the C. Elegans and then observed the worm’s life span closely.

As per the researchers, out of 4000 bacterial genes that they tested, they deleted 29 of them and found that it increased the life span of the worms. Furthermore, they also noticed that, 12 of these bacteria restricted tumor growth besides amyloid-beta accumulation. Even purified colanic acid was provided to C. Elegans and showed increased life span in them besides fruit fly and other mammalian cells. They also found that colanic acid regulated the dynamics of cellular structures called mitochondria, responsible for providing energy to the cell.

Well, based on the research that has been carried out and is being carried out, the researchers affirmatively suggest that designing supplements of the bacteria or their compounds could help slow down the aging process.

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