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What Causes Typhoid? Enteric Fever Symptoms, Treatment and Food Habits.

Typhoid fever is a condition occurring because of bacterial infection. The bacteria spread through contaminated food and water. Medical science has grown to be able to treat the disorder without complications.

What causes typhoid?

What causes typhoid

Salmonella Enterica serotype Typhi bacteria cause typhoid. We also know it as enteric fever after the bacteria. Salmonella Paratyphi bacteria, but the repercussions are comparatively less.
Typhoid causing bacteria survives in water or food. The primary means of transmission is through the consumption of contaminated food and water.

Other causes of typhoid are:

  • Coming in direct contact with the infected person
  • Coming in contact with “carriers”, carriers are people who have recovered from typhoid but still carry the Salmonella Typhi bacteria in them.

Signs and symptoms of typhoid

Signs and symptoms of typhoid From the time coming into contact with the bacteria, the typhoid fever symptoms might take one or two weeks to appear.

The symptoms of typhoid fever include:

  • High fever reading 104 degrees Fahrenheit
  • Weakness
  • Stomach pain
  • Mild or intense headaches
  • Loss of appetite
  • Blemish
  • exhaustion
  • Constipation or diarrhoea
  • Generalized body aches
  • Lethargy

Chest congestion, abdominal discomfort, and vomiting are other indications of enteric fever. Patients with advanced stages of typhoid show intestinal bleeding and intestinal perforations.

Other traits of typhoid complications are:

  • Pneumonia
  • Kidney or bladder infection
  • Pancreatitis
  • Myocarditis
  • Endocarditis
  • Meningitis
  • Paranoid psychosis

Diagnosis of Enteric fever

Once the S Typhi bacteria enter the body, it enters the bloodstream via the intestine. The bacteria invade the liver, spleen, and bone marrow and multiply, causing weakness. The subject might also develop a high fever as the immune system fights back the infection.

The presence of the bacteria is confirmed by blood tests that look for S. Typhi bacteria. If the results are inconclusive, they do culture tests to assess the presence of the bacteria in the body.

For generating the cultures, stool, urine, or bone marrow sample are collected from the patient. The samples are then placed in a medium that encourages the growth of the bacteria. After this, the cultivation is then placed under the microscope to check the presence of the S. Typhi Bacteria to confirm Typhoid fever.

Enteric fever treatment

Typhoid can be treated if detected early. The chief cure for typhoid fever is antibiotics. Antibiotic therapy kills the Salmonella Typhi bacteria.
With typhoid fever treatment and proper food intake, most people show improvements in 2-3 days. One can expect full recovery with a continuation of the treatment.
The most commonly prescribed antibiotics are:

  • Azithromycin (Zithromax). One of the most commonly prescribed antibiotics is effective against Salmonella Typhi as well.
  • Ceftriaxone. Ceftriaxone is commonly prescribed to children suffering from typhoid.
  • Ciprofloxacin (Cipro). For people showing mild symptoms and women who are not pregnant, doctors prescribe this antibiotic. This medicine is not adequate for bacteria strains found in South Africa.

Long-term use of these drugs is harmful to the body. It should be taken under the supervision of doctors. Unsupervised consumption might lead to making the bacteria resistant to antibiotics, causing severe implications. Not just this, one should not consume medication without a doctor’s advice.

Along with the antibiotics, other treatments include:

  • Having plenty of fluids prevents dehydration resulting from fever. If the patient is severely dehydrated, a doctor might prescribe taking IV fluids.
  • In extreme cases, if the intestine is damaged, it might need surgery.

Prevention of Typhoid

It is easy to prevent typhoid – watch what you eat and drink.

  • Don’t drink tap water or well-water directly.
  • Always drink pasteurized milk.
  • Avoid consuming ice cubes and popsicles made outside.
  • Do not consume raw meats and vegetables.
  • Avoid fresh produce salads if not cleaned well.
  • Avoid direct contact with infected people
  • Frequently wash your hands, especially before eating.

One way to boost up your immune system is through vaccination. Having vaccinations can avoid infection by 50%-80%. So make sure to take your vaccinations on time.

Typhoid is currently one of the treatable diseases. In case you suspect an infection, contact us immediately and get the best treatment at Vydehi. Do not self-medicate but reach out to professionals for a complete cure.

Disclaimer: The Knowledge included here is only for information sharing purposes, and the blog is not intended to be a substitute for diagnosis, medical advice or treatment by a healthcare professional. Because of individual needs appropriate advice, the reader should consult their doctor to determine the appropriate disease depending on their situation.

Ruptured Spleen : Symptoms,Treatment and Recovery Time

The spleen is a fist-sized organ next to the stomach and is under the left ribcage. Though the average size of the spleen is 4 inches, it varies from person-person.

It performs vital functions in the body.

  • The spleen filters blood to remove damaged RBC or Red Blood Cells.
  • It helps fight infections since it carries white blood cells or WBC
  • Spleen stores and releases immune cells to reduce tissue inflammation.
  • Speen regulates the RBC, WBC, and platelets levels in the blood.

What is a Ruptured Spleen?

A ruptured spleen is a medical condition caused by the bursting of the surface of the spleen. Damaging the spleen is difficult since the rib cage plays a crucial role in protecting it.
Though the spleen plays a vital role in the body’s defense, a person can survive without it in case of extensive damages. A ruptured spleen can be life-threatening if left untreated.

ruptured spleen  treatment

Ruptured Spleen Symptoms, Treatment and Recovery Time

Causes of Ruptured Spleen

The two prominent causes for ruptured spleen are injuries and enlarged spleen.

  1. Injuries to the spleen by vehicular accidents, sports accidents, or assault are the leading cause of the ruptured spleen.
  2. Enlarged spleen: When the spleen is not functioning well, it will store blood, leading to an enlarged spleen. An enlarged spleen is more susceptible to damage. A slight injury might then cause a ruptured spleen.

Other causes leading to rupturing of the spleen are:

  • Infections
  • Cancer
  • Liver diseases
  • Metabolic disorders

And Also Read more about Liver diseases.

Ruptured Spleen Symptoms

The occurrence of signs of a ruptured spleen varies in duration depending on the intensity of the injury. The key symptoms are intense pain in the left abdomen region and the left shoulder.
Variations in blood pressure cause other symptoms of the spleen injury, including the delayed symptoms because of the rupturing.

  • Nausea
  • Blurred Vision
  • Confusion
  • Anxiety
  • Paleness
  • Fainting
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Tenderness in the area

Diagnosis of Ruptured Spleen

Various means to determine a ruptured spleen are:

  • Physical exam: The doctor performs a physical exam to determine the size of the spleen by gently pressing in the area. This method identifies an enlarged spleen almost immediately.
  • Blood tests: To measure the performance of the spleen, doctors advise blood tests. Platelet counts and the clotting factor evaluates how well the spleen is functioning
  • Abdominal Cavity Scan: A clear sign of the ruptured spleen is blood in the abdomen cavity. An ultrasound scan is a sure means of determining the same. In case of emergency, the doctor might insert a needle into the abdomen and draw fluid samples. The presence of blood in the fluid sample shows a ruptured spleen.

Ruptured Spleen Treatment

The treatment for the ruptured spleen varies according to the severity. The human body can heal itself from minor injuries given enough time. Even then, the patient is under constant monitoring since they might require blood transfusions until the organ heals completely.
If the injury is critical and the doctor feels the damage is irreversible, they perform emergency ruptured spleen surgery to either repair or remove the spleen.

Surgical options to treat the ruptured spleen include:

  • Repairing of Spleen: The procedure involves mending the tear by applying pressure on the spleen or blood vessels until blood clots. If doctors can identify the condition immediately when the rupture occurs, doctors perform arterial embolization to hasten the blood clotting process.
  • Removing a Part of Spleen: Doctors identify the damaged areas in the spleen and perform partial splenectomy. The laparoscopic procedure reduces the risks of infection.
  • Splenectomy: Removal of the entire spleen in a case of extensive damage is splenectomy. Since the spleen fights infections, removal of the organ will make the person susceptible to infections. Hence, doctors strongly advise the patients to take vaccines to help the body cope with this loss. Children are usually at higher risk of infection than adults because of obvious reasons.

Recovery time from Ruptured Spleen Treatment

The recovery time from the ruptured spleen depends on the intensity of the treatment. In case of no surgery, the patient is under constant monitoring and has to make lifestyle changes.
If an operation is performed, doctors prescribe pain relief medications and antibiotics to prevent pain and infections.

Complete recovery usually takes weeks, and often months, based on the age of the patient as well. If the condition is identified early, then the survival rate of patients with the ruptured spleen is high. In case of late diagnosis, there are complications associated with the treatment.

Take extra precautions and monitor your health closely in the recovery phase. Reach out to your doctor for more details on post-operative care and the necessary changes to alter your lifestyle to suit the current body conditions.

Facial Expressions Speak louder than Words, About our Intentions

As per a new report, the facial expression not only reveals human expression but our intentions as well. The study states that facial expressions are a result of our intentions and not our feelings. The study was carried out at the Department of Psychology and Brain Sciences at UC Santa Barbara by an associate professor doing innovative research on facial expressions.

The study has been published in the journal Trends in cognitive sciences and debunks only his older research findings as a clinical psychologist. As per the researchers, we as humans relate to a smiling face as happy and sad face expressions with unhappiness or sadness but the case actually is not that. Even a monkey at the zoo does smile at the visitors but it’s just about giving that submissive threat grimace.

body-language-actions-speak-louder-than-words

He further goes on to state though humans and animals are different many of the function of the facial display in similar ways are act as tools of social negotiation. One of his research about Trobriand Islanders in Papua New Guinea still think about emotions while using facial expressions and are still untainted by Western traditions. The research found that what earlier was known to be the face of fear for these Trobiranders apparently is a display of threat with the sole objective of frightening the opponent or opponents to be submissive.

While in the 1960’s researchers did relate certain expressions to emotions but in newer studies, there has been very little or no evidence about the relationship between both. For example, an angry face might not mean that we are angry it could signal constipation, to say the least, or frustration or hurtfulness. In his earlier studies he has depicted that when humans imagine being in certain situations be it fun or scary ones, happy or irritating ones, we give more expressions than when we actually face those situations alone in reality. Also, when we watch funny videos alone we might not react as much as we do when we are watching the same video with friends.

The researcher Fridlund is currently working on the lines of his earlier research which have written about in his book titled ‘Human Facial Expression: An Evolutionary View’ that was published in 1994.

Sleep Advice for People with Lower Back Pain

Lower back pain has always been a painful and stressful issue for people who suffer from it on and off. Lower back pain is common amongst women in India particularly in women who have undergone C sections. It disrupts our daily routines and sleeps as well. Pain in the daytime or nighttime does tend to distract you and affect your concentration levels at work. Still, people do live with it but when it disrupts sleep, that is when it gets to the nerves. So, let us look into certain sleeping positions that are suitable for people who suffer from back pain because even not sleeping in a proper posture can add to your pain, thus worsening it.

Well, it’s important to maintain a natural curve of the spine while you sleeping. To ensure that you maintain a proper posture when lying in bed you need to provide proper support to your back when you sleep and keep your hips, shoulders, and head properly aligned. This is not easy as it seems because each one of us sleeps differently like some sleep on their left side, some on their left while some sleep on their stomach. Many avoid sleeping on the back because of snoring issues.

lower back pain

Here are few postures that might help you in dealing with your lower back pain while in bed.

1. THE BEST POSITION – The best sleeping position is to lie on the back because it distributes the weight across the body’s surface and uniformly too. It maintains a good alignment of the spine, neck, and head and minimizes the pressure points.

2. FETUS LIKE POSITION – This position is known to be very effective for people who suffer from herniated disc conditions. The fetus position wherein the knees are tucked close to the chest helps in reducing the spine bend and opens the joints up as well.

3. PILLOW BETWEEN KNEES – Many people prefer sleeping on sides, even though it is not considered to be an appropriate sleeping position as it can strain the lower back by pulling the spine out of its position. But, there is a solution to this. Simply place a firm pillow between your knees when you sleep on the sides thus realigning your pelvis, hips, and spine.

4. RECLINER POSITION – This position has helped many with isthmic spondylolisthesis relieve themselves from lower back pain at night. Though an expensive solution, if it is helping you significantly reduce your back pain, then investing in a recline does seem a good idea. You can adjust the chair or bed as per the needs of your back.

Well, many of us are already aware that lower back problems can aggravate if we do not use appropriate mattresses and pillows as well. So, it is important that you buy a mattress or pillow as per your requirement.

  1. Try changing your pillow every 12 -18 months.
  2. If you tend to sleep on your back a lot, use a thinner pillow to avoid straining your neck
  3. Pillows made from memory foam are a good choice as they take the shape of your head or neck.
  4. A medium-firm mattress is a good choice for those of you with lower back conditions.
  5. Avoid softer mattresses because they tend to disturb spin alignment and change them every 10 years.

A good night’s sleep is indeed important for good health and fitness so if you have lower back issues the most important thing to do first is to catch up with a Physiotherapist and see what he has to advise on the same.

 

Free Mega Health Camp – 2016

Press release for mega health camp

Graduation day – 2016

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Rehab Carnival – 11th REHAB DAY, Vydehi Institute of Rehabilitation

To commemorate the International Disability week celebrations and mark the celebrations of 11th REHAB DAY, Vydehi Institute of Rehabilitation organized “Rehab Carnival” on December 13th, 2014.

Vydehi Institute  of Rehabilitation is rendering its services to special children since 2003. Since last 11 years, Rehabilitation Department at Vydehi is providing therapies viz, Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, Speech therapy, Clinical psychology, yoga therapy and special Education to clients of all age groups suffering from various orthopedic, neurological, psychological problems.

Rehab Carnival aimed to display talents of children with special needs and provided lot of opportunities to their families to recognize the vocational skills their children have, from cooking to craft work  and from creativity to rhythm.

On this day of excitement and fun, Vydehi Institute of Rehabilitation (VIR) took people of all age groups on a journey through the animal world. We could see lot of creativity and enthusiasm in our special children. VIPs, Senior medical consultants, College students and families took lot of initiative in encouraging and appreciating the work done by children from our special school.

GEETIKA SOOD
CHIEF – Vydehi Institute of Rehabilitation

Functionalities and benefits of Biometrics And Biometric Attendance Systems

Time is money, more so in Business. All sorts of time thefts that plague companies are difficult to target. Combined with human errors, these time thefts simply generate huge losses in terms of quality manpower. The only solution to manually calculating, controlling and recording employee time-sheets is biometrics.
Biometrics or Biometric Authentication is the process of Identification of human beings by their traits or characteristics. Biometrics are a form of identification and access control. Examples of biometrics are fingerprinting, face recognition, DNA, palm printing, hand geometry and iris recognition.
Biometric Attendance Systems

The various functionality associated with biometrics are uniqueness, performance and acceptability. There are two modes of operation of a biometric system

1) Verification or Authentication-Verification means that the system performs a one to one comparison to a specific template stored in a biometric database
2) Identification-Identification means a one to many comparison against the biometric database in order to establish the individual’s identity.

For a company to be a leader in its niche, it should be taking steps at ground level to prevent wastage of time. A biometric attendance system has the following benefits-

1) Cloud computing- To compute a secure log-in and log-out of work, these biometric systems are anytime, anywhere
2) A finger or thumb impression is the sole prerogative of these biometric systems putting an end to time thefts
3) Buddy punching is prevalent all over the world. By this term we mean that the employee punches the access card of his colleague to prevent the knowledge of his late timings. But the use of biometrics successfully prevents this occurrence.
4) Manual tracking is highly faulty and can be avoided by the use of biometrics and human errors can be relegated to minimal values.
5) The administrative process is smooth and regulatory making payrolls a relatively easy task.

Biometric attendance systems are one of the best available software systems that can save human efforts with very little investment. It can certainly increase the overall productivity in short span of time.
Star performers can bank upon biometric attendance systems to outshine their peers. Cheers!!