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Esophageal Varices: Causes, Risk factors and Prevention Tips

The oesophagus (or esophagus) is the tube that carries food from the throat to the stomach. In an adult human being, the muscular duct measures up to eight inches long. The oesophagus runs parallel behind the windpipe, heart, and in front of the spine. Before connecting to the stomach, it passes through the diaphragm.

The muscles in the esophagus play a significant role in passing the food to the stomach and holding the food inside before it turns into energy.

Esophageal Varices

Among several, one of the principal complications that arise in the esophagus is the Esophageal Varices. In this condition, abnormal veins develop at the lower end of the tube. The veins are swollen or enlarged along the wall of the esophagus.

The condition usually goes undetected unless the veins bleed. Esophageal varices – a chronic disease, is manageable with proper medical support and guidance.

Esophageal varices Causes Risk factors Prevention

Esophageal varices Causes

The primary cause for esophageal varices is the malfunctioning of the liver. People who have liver cirrhosis are under constant threat to develop this condition.
The liver cleanses toxins from the body. When the blood flow to this crucial organ is restricted, it flows into the nearby vessels, increasing the supply. Because of this esophagus is one of the several organs that receive excess blood. The blood vessels in the esophagus are small and incapable of carrying surplus blood, leading to swelling up and resulting in varices.

Other contributing factors leading to varices are:

  • Thrombosis or blood clot in the portal vein.
  • Blockage of veins in the liver also known as Budd-Chiari syndrome
  • Schistosomiasis, also known as bilharzia – a disease caused by parasitic worms.


Bleeding is the leading symptom that indicates the oesophageal varices. The rupturing of the veins results in one of the following conditions:

  • vomiting of the blood – hematemesis
  • tarry or black stools
  • blood in the stools

The other symptoms might include:

  • intense bouts of stomach pain
  • pale or yellow skin
  • irregular breathing
  • easy bruising
  • fluid building up in the abdomen region

The symptoms in extreme cases where the bleeding is severe include:

  • loss of consciousness,
  • a person entering the state of shock

Also, Read : Stomach Cancer – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Risk factors

The risk factor depends on the progression of the condition. Not everyone will start bleeding immediately after developing varices. The Esophageal varices bleed under the following conditions:

  • If the patient has large esophageal varices
  • If red marks are present on the esophageal varices.
  • The patient develops high portal hypertension because of continuous pressure applied to the veins.
  • Severe scarring of the liver or cirrhosis is the primary risk factor. As the severity increases, so do the chances of bleeding.
  • Another reason for bleeding can be a bacterial infection. As the bacterial infection increases, it increases the chances of vessels rupture.
  • On detection of cirrhosis and varices, if the patient continues to consume excessive alcohol use, it also increases the chances of bleeding.
  • Esophageal varices can cause excessive vomiting or constipation since processing food becomes difficult.
  • violent coughing spells can trigger the rupture of the veins


Correcting the underlying cause is the best way to prevent esophageal varices. A healthy diet and lifestyle to keep the body and the liver healthy is the way to avoid this chronic condition. Failing to accomplish that will cause complications and might lead to the replacement of the liver.

The following healthy measures should be part of daily lives to avoid this and any other health issue.

  • Eat low sodium and high fibre diet.
  • Include a lot of fruits and vegetables in your diet.
  • Maintain a healthy weight
    Avoid drinking alcohol as it can lead to liver damages.
  • Practise safe hygiene protocols.
  • Get periodic health check-ups as per your physician’s advice to avoid serious health blocks.

Esophageal varices treatment

  1. Treating the esophageal varices is very crucial. Without treatment, the condition can prove fatal. Regular follow-up with the doctor is a must as long as this is a chronic condition.
  2. Esophageal varices pathophysiology suggests that there are two ways to treat this disease.
    A. Prevention from bleeding
  3. Once the condition is detected either via endoscopy or imaging, the primary aim is to prevent bleeding of the veins.
  4. If it is small esophageal varices, they control it via medications such as beta-blockers to reduce the pressure in the portal veins.
  5. Esophageal varices banding: If the doctors find you are prone to bleeding, they will suggest variceal banding. Esophageal banding involves pulling the varices into a chamber with the help of an endoscope and tying them off with elastic bands to avoid bleeding.

Endoscopic sclerotherapy is the process of shrinking the swollen veins using medications administered via endoscope.

B. Treating the bleeding

There is over one way to treat bleeding varices. All the preventive measures specified above can be used to stop or minimize the blood supply. In case the bleeding is severe, then the patient needs the following action:

  1. Trans-jugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS): It involves adding a shut between the portal vein and the hepatic vein to carry blood from the liver to the heart. The process relives the built-up stress on the portal veins, thus controlling the bleeding.
  2. Distal splenorenal shunt procedure (DSRS): The procedure involves connecting the primary vein from the spleen to the vein of the left kidney. This procedure is more invasive but controls bleeding up to 90%.
  3. Injecting clotting factors via blood transfusion serves the dual purpose of replenishing the lost blood and avoiding further bleeding.
  4. In very severe cases, replacing the liver is the only and the last option.

Read More about the Signs of Ruptured Spleen

It is crucial to know the details of the condition and follow the doctors’ advice. Do not ignore the esophageal varices and self medicate, as it might cause complications. If you are in doubt, contact our doctors at Vydehi for more guidance and help. We are always around to facilitate, to get your health back in shape.

Disclaimer: The information included here is only for knowledge sharing purposes, and the blog is not intended to be a substitute for diagnosis, medical advice or treatment by a healthcare professional. Because of individual needs appropriate advice, the reader should consult their doctor to determine the appropriate disease depending on their situation.

Dermatographia: Symptoms, Causes and Ayurvedic Treatment

Dermatographia or dermatographism is a skin condition. It’s one of the most common types of inducible urticaria occurring in 2-5% of the population. Categorized under physical urticaria, the term Dermatographism means ‘Skin writing’ or ‘to write on skin’. An urticarial eruption is formed on the application of even mild downward pressure in the form of a linear wheal in the shape of whichever external force is applied. A wheal is a circumscribed dermal edema also known as welt or a hive.

Urticaria dermatographia or dermatographism urticaria can be broadly categorized as symptomatic and asymptomatic.
Symptomatic dermatographism is often associated with pruritus, stinging, prickling sensation, and erythematous wheals which is the rarer but more troublesome type of dermatographism. It is idiopathic in nature but often severe at night and aggravated by heat, minor pressure, exercise, stress and emotion, helicobacter pylori, bites, scabies, systemic mastocytosis.
An asymptomatic dermatographism is only presented with the formation of wheal in the shape of trauma-induced.



Dermatographia causes

Although the exact cause for dermatographia disease is unknown, its pathogenesis involves the release of histamine from mast cells.

Although not conclusive the exaggerated biological response called, ‘ the triple response of lewis’, triggered by the mechanical trauma which releases some antigens that react with the bound IgE on mast cells. This leads to the release of histamine and other inflammatory mediators.

  1. The dilated capillaries produce a superficial erythematous phase
  2. Axon-reflex flare and sensory nerve fiber communication causes broadening erythema from arteriolar dilation
  3. Formation of linear wheal from fluid transudation

This is the triple response of lewis. The entire response takes about 5-10 minutes after an external stimulus.

It is known to be seen in diabetic, hyper/hypothyroidism, menopausal(onset), pregnant(mostly second trimester), or medication-related (penicillin) people. Other known risk factors associated with this condition are;

  • Age: mostly in young adults, peak in the second and third decade.
  • Hypereosinophilic syndrome in atopic children
  • Traumatic life events and psychological co-morbidities.
  • Behcet disease
  • Systemic mastocytosis (Congenital symptomatic dermatographism)

Dermatographia Signs and symptoms

  • Formation of erythematous wheals in the form of mechanical trauma induced on the skin even by mild stroking within 5-10 minutes. Except for a very rare type of delayed dermographism where tender urticarial lesion reappears 3 to 8 hours after the initial injury that persists up to forty-eight (48) hours
  • It May or may not be associated with pruritus.
  • Wheals can persist anywhere between 15-30 minutes unlike the normal triple response of lewis that subsides within 10 minutes. Deeper edemas into the dermis form larger wheals.
  • Mostly seen on trunks and extremities. Very rarely on the scalp and genital area(except for dyspareunia and vulvodynia)
  • Histopathologically, dermal edema with few perivascular mononuclear cells is seen.

Also, Read All You Need To Know About Lipomas

Rare subtypes of Dermatographism

  • Red dermatographism (small punctate wheals on repeated friction, predominantly on the trunk, possible association with seborrheic dermatitis)
  • Cholinergic dermographism (large erythematous line with by smaller punctate wheals surrounded by macular erythema with purpura in severe cases)
  • Follicular dermographism (transitory discrete follicular urticarial papules against the bright erythematous background)
  • Cold-precipitated
  • Exercise-induced
  • Familial (probably autosomal dominant inheritance)

Differential Diagnosis

  • False dermographism- Presents with similar symptoms but different mechanisms are involved. They are white, black, and yellow dermatographism. White dermatographism is caused by a blanching response from capillary vasoconstriction secondary to allergic contact dermatitis and is prevalent in atopic individuals. Black dermatographism is a greenish or blackish discoloration of the skin that occurs after contact with metallic objects. Yellow dermatographism is due to the deposition of bile pigments on the skin.
  • Latex allergy mimicking symptomatic dermographia is mostly seen on hands and genital region due to physical contact of latex in gloves, contraceptives, toys, etc.
  • Mastocytosis.

Dermatographia Diagnosis

Primarily, dermographism urticaria is a clinical diagnosis. It is usually made by observing the response in the subject after using moderate pressure to scratch or stroke the skin gently. A tongue depressor is used for this purpose. The site of pressure application is of importance because of the reactiveness of areas the dorsal area or back which is protected from the external environmental influences and pressure than that of more exposed parts like buttocks or limbs. The exaggerated triple response of Lewis points to the diagnosis.
A spring-loaded stylus called a dermographometer is used to apply graded pressure and record skin responses. Its use is mostly limited to the research settings due to its reproducibility.
Hematological and biochemical screening tests are usually normal, except for few cases where increased blood histamine is recorded after experimental scratching.

Dermatographia Treatment

Dermatographia, a benign condition, seldom governs treatment until it is symptomatic. Mostly seen in young adults this condition resolves itself after approximately five years to ten years in the majority of the cases.
Symptomatic dermatographia requires medical attention due to its presentations. It is mostly treated with antihistamines. H1 antihistamines like cetirizine, loratadine are the drugs of choice, and H2 antihistamines like diphenhydramine, hydroxyzine are combined in required cases. Omalizumab has also been considered for treatment and is under research for its efficacy. Phototherapy with Narrowband ultraviolet (UV)-B and oral psoralen plus UV-A therapy has also been advised in a few cases. Adjunctive treatment with vitamin C is also used as a dermatographia cure.
Antihistamines are to be taken under strict medical supervision only as certain activities like driving, operating heavy machinery have to be avoided.
Apart from major pharmacological therapy, prevention and avoidance of aggravating factors such as physical stimuli play a major role in controlling this condition. Good skincare and use of emollients can reduce dry skin thereby aggravating dermographia due to scratching. Wearing soft clothes, reducing stress and anxiety, and practicing yoga all play a key role in controlling this.

Dermatographia Ayurvedic Treatment

Ayurveda, the ancient medicine system of India under the broad heading of twak vikara encompasses many dermatological conditions. Udarda, a Kapha dominant condition, is mainly treated with shodhana ( bio purification procedures) and shamana aushadha ( pacificatory medicines) based on the patient. The internal medications mainly will have the quality of ushna, teekshna, Vata anulomana, and pachana. They subside both Kapha and Vata along with vimargagami pitta. Along with pathya and apathya, dietary and lifestyle modification suitable to patient and disease, Ayurveda has a potential holistic approach to dermatographia. Medicines like Haridra khanda, ardraka khanda, amrita satva, arogyavardhini vati, gandhaka rasayana, aragwadha amrutadi kashaya, dashamoola haritaki,, varanadi kashayam, ayaskriti, abhyanga with katu taila, vardhamana pippali rasayana, etc.

Although not life-threatening, dermatographism is a distressing condition. Asymptomatic dermographism requires no treatment but symptomatic dermographism should be treated till the condition is controlled or resolved. Reach out to our experts at VIMS today, for proper guidance. Our expert team of doctors from ayurvedic and modern fields of medicine is always within your reach.

Also, Read Ayurvedic herbs for skin 

Disclaimer: The information included here is only for knowledge sharing purposes, and the blog is not intended to be a substitute for diagnosis, medical advice or treatment by a healthcare professional. Because of individual needs appropriate advice, the reader should consult their doctor to determine the appropriate disease depending on their situation.

Leukoderma Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Leukoderma, also spelled as Leucoderma, is a disease that causes loss of pigmentation on the skin. The condition causes white patches to appear on the skin and is more distinguishable in people with dark skin.
Also termed vitiligo, the condition is termed severe when the spots cover the entire body, including the scalp, eyes, and genitals. It is a long-term skin ailment that at times is incurable. With the help of proper medical diagnosis and a combination of various treatments, patients can manage the disease. All patients do not respond in the same way to the treatments due to different underlying causes; hence the results of the treatment will differ from one to another. 

Types of Vitiligo

Vitiligo or Leukoderma is classified into two main categories -
  1. Non-segmental vitiligo
  2. Segmental Vitiligo
Non-segmental Vitiligo
Non-segmental Vitiligo (NSV) is the most commonly occurring disease. It is characterized by patches appearing in both halves of the body and often symmetrical in the region in which they appear. According to research, 90% of the people affected with Leukoderma fall under this category. The NSV is further grouped into the following categories
  • Generalized or Universal Leukoderma is the condition where the white patches can occur anywhere on the body.
  • Focal vitiligo occurs mostly in children and is restrained in one area of the body.
  • Acrofacial vitiligo is the condition that causes depigmentation around fingers, vitiligo on lips, and the periorificial regions [meaning inside of the mouth, chin, eyelids, nostrils, and upper lips].
  • Mucosal Leucoderma occurs only in the mucous membranes.
Segmental Vitiligo
Segmental Vitiligo [SV] is restricted to one segment or one half of the body. The depigmentation occurs most commonly in the areas of the skin associated with the dorsal roots emerging from the spinal cord. SV occurs only in 10% of the patients affected with Lekoderma and is a stable version of the two. The treatment and causes vary from that of NSV, and the appearance is also different.
Leukoderma Causes, Symptoms & Vitiligo Treatment

Symptoms of Leukoderma

To know if a person is affected by vitiligo, one can observe the occurrence of the following symptoms.
  • Depigmentation of the skin areas exposed to the sun
  • Spreading of the white pigmentation in case of an injury while white patches already exist in a different area of the skin
  • If the white patches that are generally harmless start to itch on exposure to the sun, or excessive heat, or when sweating
  • If the depigmentation starts becoming prominent on the face, hands, and other areas of the body
  • Premature greying of hairs
  • Change in the retina color
 The process of depigmentation is usually painless. They can start occurring as harmless small patches and grow in size, as in the case of NSV.

Causes of Leukoderma

Though the exact cause for vitiligo is unknown, some theories try to explain what causes leukoderma. Even after extensive research, what triggers Luekoderma is unknown, but the following reasons are attributed as a combination of one or more factors causing the condition.

  • Autoimmune disorder: It is the condition in which the immune system attacks healthy cells of the body thereby destroying the basic mechanism of the body itself. One of the effects of the condition is the destruction of the melanocytes causing depigmentation on the skin leading to vitiligo.
  • Genetics: According to a study, 30% of the cases are attributed to hereditary reasons. The studies also reveal that stress triggers the genes causing vitiligo causing the condition in the individuals.
  • Infections: One of the most common causes for vitiligo is either viral or bacterial infections like leprosy, syphilis, lichen planus, and other diseases.
  • Occupation: Staying in a job that demands continuous exposure to some chemicals, or sun causing sunburns, also causes Leucoderma.
  • Neurogenic factors – a condition where substances toxic to the melanocytes are released from the nerve ending on the skin, can cause vitiligo.

Leucoderma Treatment

Vitiligo is not a life-threatening disease and does not spread by coming in contact with the person who has it. According to current research trends, there is no cure for vitiligo, but the condition is manageable with various vitiligo treatment options available to patients. Few among them are:

  • Medication – Doctors advise topical creams or ora pills to help repigment the skin, and control inflammation or other effects arising due to depigmentation.
  • Light Therapy – Light therapy sessions involving Narrow-band ultraviolet – B (311) phototherapy and oral psoralen and UVA – PUVA therapy are the two prominent types of light therapy used in treating vitiligo. Of the two, PUVA is more effective in treating the leukoderma occurring in the upper body.
  • Surgery – Skin grafts where the normal skin is removed from one part of the body and is used to cover the affected area is a common treating method for vitiligo. Another similar technique used is Blister grafting.

The main goal among all the treatment methods is to darken the lightened skin patches to avoid further spread of these patches. If the condition is still in its early phases, the application of cosmetics like skin tanners or makeup on the affected area remains the safest option instead of the above-mentioned methods.

Certain individuals also resort to getting tattoos to cover up the affected areas, however, this method is not very popular since the chances of triggering another patch due to allergic reactions are always on the higher side.

Also, Read Best Ayurvedic Herbs for Skin

Leukoderma treatment at home

Several home remedies help in managing leukoderma at home, however, they do not provide a complete cure. Few methods one can try at home to manage vitiligo are –

  • Dietary changes: Consuming food rich in vitamin C, zinc, and copper is said to stimulate the healing process.
  • Apply a mixture of basil leaves and lime juice to the affected area to increase melanin production.
  • Applying a mixture of turmeric and mustard oil twice a day on the affected part is another way of increasing melanin production.

If you are diagnosed with Leukoderma, few things to always remember are-

  • Make sure to apply sunscreen while stepping out into the sun to avoid sunburn and rashes.
  • Keeping yourself well hydrated also helps in avoiding rashes.
  • Most importantly, do not fall prey to scams that claim to cure vitiligo in 30 or 40 or any number of days.
  • Reach out to counselors to deal with the social stigma attached to this skin condition, and do not take drastic or uninformed measures in the heat of the moment.

Always consult your dermatologist or reach out to our doctors at VIMS for more details on how to manage Leucoderma. We are always around the corner to help you fight the social stigma attached to this skin condition. Remember, this is just a condition of the body and not the end of the world.

Also, Read How to Get Rid of a Boil

Menopause: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments

Menopause is an irreversible part of the overall aging process involving a female’s reproductive system. It is diagnosed retrospectively after twelve consecutive months of no periods (amenorrhea) without any pathology. The final menstrual period is a normal physiological process that marks the end of a woman’s reproductive cycle resulting from loss of ovarian follicular activity.


There are three stages to the transition from reproductive to the non-reproductive cycle of the uterus, which include

  1. Perimenopause
  2. Menopause
  3. Postmenopause

Premenopause refers to the period before menopause. Postmenopause is the period after menopause; generally, 24 to 36 months after the last period, where symptoms and signs of menopause subside, and perimenopause is the period around menopause, usually around 40–55 years. Perimenopause is the part of the climacteric when the menstrual cycle is typically irregular. Climacteric is the time during which a woman passes from the reproductive to the non-reproductive stage.

Age of Menopause

age of menopause

age of menopause

The age of menopause ranges between 45–55 years, the average being 50 years. The age of menopause is genetically predetermined apart from being influenced by certain factors like severe malnutrition and smoking.

Early Menopause

If menopause occurs at or below 40 years, it is said to be premature or early menopause. Menopause that occurs before this age, whether natural or induced, is known as early menopause. Along with hot flashes, mood swings, and other symptoms which usually accompany menopause, early menopausal women also have to cope with additional physical and emotional concerns.
Reasons for early menopause include genetics, lifestyle factors, chromosome defects, autoimmune diseases, and epilepsy.
Signs and symptoms of early menopause include irregular periods, noticeably longer or shorter periods than usual, heavy bleeding, spotting, mood swings, change in libido, vaginal dryness, hot flashes, night sweats, loss of bladder control.
Complications of early menopause apart from the most common infertility include increased risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, depression, and dementia.

Menopause Symptoms

menopause symptoms
One can observe any of the following menstruation patterns before menopause;

  • Abrupt cessation of menstruation (rare)
  • A noticeable decrease in both amount and duration of the menstrual cycle due to spotting or delayed and ultimately lead to cessation
  • Irregular menstruation with or without excessive bleeding is one more typical pattern. One should exclude genital malignancy before declaring it as the usual premenopausal pattern.

Related Menstrual Hygiene – The Present Scenario and Adverse Effects

The significant symptoms and the health concerns of menopause are:
Vasomotor symptoms: The characteristic symptom of menopause is hot flush. A hot flush is characterized by the sudden feeling of heat followed by profuse sweating. It may also include symptoms of palpitation, fatigue, and weakness. The physiologic changes with hot flushes are perspiration and cutaneous vasodilatation. It may last for 1–10 minutes and maybe at times unbearable. Another aspect is sleep depravity due to night sweats.
Urogenital atrophy: Low estrogen levels may cause dyspareunia and dysuria. Along with these vaginal infections, dryness, pruritus, and leucorrhea are also common. The urinary symptoms are urgency, dysuria, recurrent urinary tract infection, and stress incontinence.
Osteoporosis and fracture: Following menopause, there will be osteoporotic changes due to a decline in the collagenous bone matrix. During menopause, bone loss increases to 5% per year. Primary (type 1) osteoporosis is due to estrogen loss, age, deficient nutrition (calcium, vitamin D), or hereditary. Osteoporosis may lead to back pain, loss of height, and kyphosis. Fracture of bones is a significant health problem. The fracture may involve the vertebral body, femoral neck, or distal forearm (Colles’ fracture). Morbidity and mortality in older women following the fracture are high.
Cardiovascular disease and Cerebrovascular disease: Oxidation of LDL and foam cell formation cause vascular endothelial injury, cell death, and smooth muscle proliferation. All these lead to vascular atherosclerotic changes, vasoconstriction, and thrombus formation. Risks of ischemic heart disease, coronary artery disease, and strokes are increased.
Psychological changes: An increased frequency of anxiety, headache, insomnia, irritability, dysphasia, and depression. They may also have dementia, mood swing, and an inability to concentrate.
Skin and Hair: There is thinning, loss of elasticity, and wrinkling of the skin. After menopause, there is some loss of pubic and axillary hair and slightly balding, which may be due to low estrogen levels with a normal level of testosterone.
Sexual dysfunction: Estrogen deficiency is often seen with decreased sexual desire. This may be due to psychological changes (depression anxiety) and atrophic changes of the genitourinary system.

When to see a doctor?

  1. Cessation of menstruation for consecutive 12 months during climacteric.
  2. The appearance of menopausal symptoms ‘hot flush’ and ‘night sweats’.
  3. Vaginal cytology – showing maturation index of at least 10/85/5 (Features of low estrogen).
  4. Serum estradiol : < 20 pg/mL.
  5. Serum FSH and LH: >40 mlU/mL (three values at weeks interval required).
    Only a few women seek medical attention for perimenopausal symptoms; others either tolerate the changes or don’t have symptoms severe enough to require medical attention. The signs may be subtle and develop gradually. If the symptoms interfere with day-to-day life or well-being, such as hot flashes, mood swings, excessive bleeding, or changes in sexual function, it is advised to consult a doctor.

Treatments for Menopause

Normal menopause rarely requires anything else except for symptomatic treatment; however, doctors should adequately counsel every woman with postmenopausal symptoms about the physiologic events to remove her fears and minimize or dispel anxiety symptoms, depression, and insomnia. Reassurance is essential.
Lifestyle modification includes – increased physical activity, reducing high coffee intake, smoking, and excessive alcohol. Must have adequate calcium intake (300 mL of milk) and reduce medications that cause bone loss like corticosteroids.
A nutritious diet – balanced with calcium and protein is helpful.
Supplementary calcium – daily intake of 1–1.5 g can reduce osteoporosis and fracture based on physicians’ advice.
Vitamin D supplementation of vitamin D3 (1500–2000 IU/day) and calcium can reduce osteoporosis and fractures. Exposure to sunlight enhances the synthesis of vitamin D3 in the skin.
Based on symptoms and requirement, the physician may prescribe bisphosphonates, fluoride, calcitonins, SERMs, clonidine, thiazides, gabapentin, phytoestrogens, soy protein.
After careful evaluation and necessity, HRT ( hormonal replacement therapy) might also be suggested, which comes with its own benefits and risks.

Menopause is an unavoidable natural phenomenon that brings about changes in women. It’s best to be prepared knowing the symptoms and consult your doctors on the onset of menopause. Equip yourself with knowledge about menopause if you are around 45 years of age so that panic is the least of your concerns when it sets in. Our experts are always within your reach if you have any problems or in need of help. We are always with you, for – your health is our priority.

Disclaimer: The information included here is only for knowledge sharing purposes, and the blog is not intended to be a substitute for diagnosis, medical advice or treatment by a healthcare professional. Because of individual needs appropriate advice, the reader should consult their doctor to determine the appropriate disease depending on their situation.

Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (LVH) – Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

Left Ventricular Hypertrophy or LVH is a heart condition that causes mortal danger to one’s life if left untreated. LVH, as it is popularly known, is the thickening and enlargement of the heart wall in the heart’s left ventricle, a prominent blood-pumping chamber.
The thickening causes the heart muscles to lose their elasticity and become rigid. The condition adds extra pressure to the heart to fill up the chamber and pump the blood. In the long run, LVH declines the heart capacity to produce enough pressure to pump blood to the body.
The condition develops gradually, and at times goes unnoticed until it reaches critical stages. Regular heart health checks, hence, make a huge difference in keeping up with the heart-wellness.

Left Ventricular Hypertrophy


Concentric LVH

Concentric LVH is one of the sub-types and results from the heart adapting to hypertension or other heart-related diseases. It affects men and women alike. The symptoms of concentric hypertrophy found in ECG/EKG include

  • Increased heart wall thickness
  • Normal Left ventricles cavity
  • Increased Relative wall thickness
  • Increased Left Ventricular mass

Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (LVH) Symptoms

Left ventricular hypertrophy occurs commonly in people with a history of high uncontrolled blood pressure. Hence, having blood pressure in control is one of the main ways to avoid LVH. LVH leads to a higher risk of congestive heart failure and irregular heart rhythms, which are life-threatening heart conditions.
Some of the general traits experienced by people with LVH are:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Fatigue, Dizziness, or fainting
  • Chest pain after exercising or performing a strenuous activity
  • Heart palpitations or fluttering of the heart

Causes of LVH

The most common cause of LVH is uncontrolled high blood pressure. Other causes might include

  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a genetic condition that causes the heart wall to b slightly thicker than the average heart walls.
  • The heart valve regulates the blood flow direction in the heart. Irregular or malfunctioning of these heart valves exerts extra pressure in the heart chambers, leading to thickening muscles.
  • Congenital heart diseases that form during pregnancy do not allow the heart to develop as it should. If the cases are mild most of the times, it does not require rectification. In severe cases, the defect may be corrected via medications or surgery.
  • Aortic valve stenosis is when the aortic valve that supplies blood to the body and is present between the lower left chamber of the heart is narrow. This condition can occur as congenital heart disease or in people over 65 due to calcium deposits in the valve.
  • Athletic Training is one more reason that causes more stress exertion on the heart. In most cases, it is not fatal until another condition exists along since heart enlargement is common among athletes.
  • Similar to calcium deposits mentioned, there are chances that protein deposition can also cause Left Ventricular Hypertrophy. This process or condition is called Amyloidosis.

When to see a doctor?

LVH goes undetected in the early stages since the heart is trying to adjust to the changes in the best possible way without realizing it’s an abnormality. The symptoms often manifest in the later stages. Experiencing a combination of at least two of the following problems indicates that one should consult a doctor as soon as possible.

  • Frequent chest pain that lasts longer than minutes each.
  • Difficulty in breathing after exercising or after mild activities
  • Sudden headaches, difficulty in speaking, weakness in a particular part of the body for no reason
  • Nausea, constant lightheadedness, or loss of consciousness frequently

Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (LVH ) Diagnosis

A combination of the following tests diagnoses LVH as it does not have a standalone test.

  • Electrocardiogram: This is the first step in determining if LVH exists. The electric signal is sent through the heart to observe the pattern. Any deviation from the regular pattern is an indication of an underlying problem in the heart.
  • Echocardiogram: If the doctor has a reason to suspect LVH, the second step they recommend is for the patient to undergo Echocardiogram. It is the process of producing live-action images of the heart and revealing the structure of the heart using sound waves.
  • MRI: Until the cardiologist has second doubts regarding the diagnosis, MRI is not suggested to determine LVH. It is the process of heart imaging to diagnose abnormalities in the heart.

Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (LVH) Treatment

Getting blood pressure under control should ease the LVH condition. In most cases, the medications are taken to maintain regular blood pressure help prevent further enlargement of the heart and help reverse LVH. In various instances, like calcium or protein deposits found in the valves or heart, the medications might slightly differ.
The medications widen the blood vessels, lowers pressure on the heart, and decrease the pressure on the heart by improving the blood flow. The examples of these medications are:

  • Calcium channel blockers are the medications that prevent calcium from entering the heart and also widen the valves.
  • Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARB)
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
  • Diuretics
  • Beta-blockers are not usually recommended as the first medication. Only when other drugs fail to produce the expected results, doctors prescribe beta-blocker since they cause variations in the hormones.

The final option is surgery to repair the valves or the vessels, restricting the blood’s proper entry to the heart.

What can you do at home?

One of the best ways to avoid LVH is to follow a healthy lifestyle at home. Following a disciplined routine can help one avoid not only heart complications but other health problems as well.

  • Quitting Smoking is the easiest way to avoid blockages in hearts and lungs since the residue from the smoke causes them.
  • Losing weight can decrease the risk of LVH in obese people since they tend to have a slightly larger heart than ordinary weighing people. Studies have shown that losing weight can also help in reversing the condition in some cases.
  • Following a heart-healthy diet that involves fiber-rich food like fruits, green leafy vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, and good fats like olive oil and ghee can help avoid calcium and protein depositing in the heart.
  • Avoiding extra salt intake helps maintain the proper blood pressure, thus enabling the heart’s efficient working.
  • Quitting or avoiding alcohol consumption helps decrease blood pressure since alcohol is said to increase the same.
  • Following a regular exercise routine for at least 30 minutes daily is a sure-shot way of avoiding health complications.
  • Effective stress management is the primary way to decrease the pressure on the heart. Stress varies the levels of the hormones, thus affecting the heart and body’s efficient performance.
  • Follow medications routine prescribed by the cardiologist if you are diagnosed with LVH. Do not change the dosage of the medicines without consulting the doctor.

Also, Read Seven Simple Tips to Strengthen your Heart

Disclaimer: The information included here is only for knowledge sharing purposes, and the blog is not intended to be a substitute for diagnosis, medical advice or treatment by a healthcare professional. Because of individual needs appropriate advice, the reader should consult their doctor to determine the appropriate disease depending on their situation.

How to Get Rid of a Boil: Causes, Symptoms & Home Remedies

Boils or furuncles are skin infections and occur due to the clogging of the oil glands, hair follicles, or skin pores. The area surrounding the boils is usually reddish when they appear on the skin. Gradually as the day passes, pus forms under the patch and can be painful.

Often the boils can be treated at home and do not need medical attention unless it grows big and starts paining immensely.

how to get rid of a boil

how to get rid of a boil

Types of Boils

Large boils are medically known as skin abscesses. They usually occur on the back, chest, face, or buttocks. Other areas they can occur are the underarms or groin. Most of the skin abscesses will go away without treatment or with the usage of available Over-the-Counter drugs. They rarely become challenging to treat and may require consultation with a dermatologist, who will drain the boil and advise proper medications by studying the underlying cause.

Carbuncles are another type of boils. Carbuncles usually occur in a group and are more frequent in middle-aged men. They are a result of more widespread infection compared to boils and are severe as well. It is safe to consult a medical practitioner in such cases as improper handling can lead to disastrous results.

Another type of boils is the one that occurs on the eyelids and is called Sty(Stye). An infection in the sebaceous glands of the eyelids causes Sty. Since eyes are delicate organs, it is better to consult an Ophthalmologist instead of treating them at home.

Causes of Boils

Boils commonly occur in areas that come in frequent contact with the clothes. The constant rubbing often irritates the skin and can cause minor cuts or bruises. Germs or bacteria entering through these cuts are the primary reason why boils occur.

The leading causes of boils are

  1. The bacteria staphylococci that are present on the skin enter the skin via minor cuts or burns and causes boils
  2. Having close contact with people who have boils and sharing the products used by them
  3. Weak immune system due to conditions such as HIV or chronic disease like diabetes
  4. Existing skin disease such as eczema, psoriasis, or oily skin prone to acne outbreaks
  5. Allergy to medications or medications that can weaken the immune system
  6. Ingrown hair that cannot come out
  7. Splinters or small foreign particles logged in the skin
  8. Poor nutrition and personal hygiene

Symptoms of Boils

The first symptoms of boils are the appearance of reddish spots on the surface of the skin. After a few days, the spots not only turn painful, but pus starts accumulating beneath the skin.

The symptoms of severe infection are:

  • The skin around the boils turns red, painful, warm, and swollen.
  • Increase in the size of the boil
  • Several boils may form around the original boil forming a cluster and severe infection.
  • Developing a fever or chills after a few days of the occurrence of the boil
  • Swelling of the Lymph nodes

Though boils appear similar to acne, they are much more severe and painful. The treatment also varies for both skin conditions.

Also Read Leukoderma Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Treatment for Curing a Boil

Often when they appear, the main question will be how to get rid of a boil since they look ugly and are painful.

Sometimes the boils need not be treated; they disappear on their own. Only when it grows painful and does not go away after a week of appearing will it have to be treated by medical practitioners.

We have a few home remedies to treat boils when they are at the initial stages. They are

home remedies for boils

home remedies for boils

  • Keep warm towels against the boils for 10 mins at least four times a day. This enhances blood circulation around the area, and thus, the WBC’s present in the blood will be able to fight off the infection faster.
  • Put indirect pressure on the boil and take care not to burst them since it increases the risks of expanding the contamination to the nearby skin surfaces.
  • Clean the infection if pus starts oozing out of the boil with anti-bacterial soap. Then dress the wound appropriately with gauze. Clean the wound area at least three times a day till it heals completely.

Do’s and Don’ts for boil treatment at home.

The home remedies for boils help in avoiding complications are later stages. However, one has to follow specific protocols for proper healing of the boils.

  • If boils have developed on the face, do not repeatedly touch them or squeeze them.
  • If the boils have developed due to shaving, avoid shaving the area until the boil has ruptured and healed to avoid the infection’s spread.
  • Do not use sharp objects for popping the boils, as they increase the chances of infections. Usually, the boils rupture on their own with heat compress within a week to ten days.
  • Do not share the towels or clothes with others to minimize the chances the spreading the infection.
  • Do not use swimming pools.
  • Wash the hands frequently to avoid infecting the area with cuts and burns.
  • If there are nicks and cuts, ensure sterilizing the area immediately with alcohol-based solution, and do not touch the area with unclean hands until the wound is healed.
  • Regularly wash commonly used towels and bedsheets.

Boils usually can be tended at home and do not require a medical practitioner’s attention. However, when one develops high fever and chills or more boils making the condition severe, consult a physician or a dermatologist to help treat the boil. Another scenario to consult a medical practitioner is when boils appear on the face. They will drain the pus carefully and prescribe antibiotics to heal the wound. In case the boils are really large, the pus sample may be sent to the lab to determine the type of infection, and antibiotics will be prescribed based on the results.

Despite taking all the precautions, one cannot avoid developing boils. Once they appear, one cannot get rid of a boil immediately or overnight since it is an infection. Treating it right is the only way to cure the boils, but one has to make efforts to stay healthy and follow personal hygiene to avoid complications.

Also, Read 

Disclaimer: The information included here is only for knowledge sharing purposes, and the blog is not intended to be a substitute for diagnosis, medical advice or treatment by a healthcare professional. Because of individual needs appropriate advice, the reader should consult their doctor to determine the appropriate disease depending on their situation.

Everything You Need to Know About Psoriatic Arthritis

Psoriatic arthritis is a deforming, seronegative, oligoarticular inflammatory arthritis that can involve small or large joints mostly found in patients with a type of autoimmune skin condition called psoriasis.

psoriatic arthritis

Types of psoriatic arthritis

There are five clinical patterns of psoriatic arthritis.

Oligoarticular arthritis

Asymmetrical inflammatory oligoarthritis affects about 40% of patients and often presents abruptly with a combination of synovitis and adjacent periarticular inflammation. This occurs most characteristically in the hands and feet when synovitis of a finger or toe couples with tenosynovitis(inflammation of tendon sheath where the muscle connects to bone), enthesitis, and inflammation of intervening tissue to give a ‘sausage digit’ or dactylitis, where the whole digit gets inflamed. Large joints, such as the elbow, ankle, and knee may also be affected with either small-scale or large effusions. Psoriatic arthritis feet is one such common presentation with sausage toes, heel pain, pain on the sole of the foot, and toenail changes. It is caused by inflammation of membranes that line the joints, tendons, and connective tissues of the feet.

Symmetrical psoriatic arthritis

Symmetrical polyarthritis occurs in about 25% of cases. It predominates in women and may strongly resemble Rheumatoid Arthritis, with symmetrical involvement of small and large joints in upper and lower limbs. Nodules and other extra-articular RA features are absent, and arthritis is generally less extensive and more benign. Much of the hand deformity often results from tenosynovitis and soft tissue contractures

Classical psoriatic arthritis affecting distal interphalangeal joints

Distal Interphalangeal (DIP) joints arthritis is an unusual but characteristic pattern affecting men more often than women. It targets finger DIP joints and surrounding periarticular tissues, almost invariably with accompanying nail dystrophy.

Arthritis mutilans

Arthritis mutilans is deforming erosive arthritis targeting the fingers and toes that occurs in 5% of Psoriatic Arthritis cases. Prominent cartilage and bone destruction result in marked instability. The encasing skin appears invaginated and ‘telescoped’ (‘main en lorgnette’) and the affected finger can be pulled back to its original length.

Psoriatic spondylitis

Psoriatic arthritis affecting the spine and the joints in the pelvis is called Psoriatic spondylitis. The symptoms for this condition develop between the pelvis and the neck. Patients with this medical condition usually experience pain, inflammation, and stiffness in their neck and lower back. Sacroiliac joints in the pelvis can also be affected by this condition. Over time, the condition may make it more difficult for a person to move their spine. It may occur alone or with any other clinical patterns described above and is typically unilateral or asymmetric in severity

Psoriatic arthritis causes

Psoriatic arthritis occurs when the body’s immune system begins to attack healthy cells and tissue. Such an unnatural immune response causes swelling in joints as well as extra production of skin cells. Although unclear, it is likely that a combination of genetic, immunological, and environmental factors play a role in the causation of this condition. People with psoriatic arthritis usually have a family history of either psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis. Researchers have identified few genetic markers that appear to be psoriatic arthritis carriers making this disease hereditary up to an extent. Environmental factors mainly include viral and bacterial infections and trauma which may trigger the development or exacerbation of psoriatic arthritis in people

What are the symptoms of psoriatic arthritis?

The onset of psoriasis and arthritis are as follows:

  • Psoriasis appears to precede the onset of psoriatic arthritis in 60-80% of patients (occasionally by 20 years, but usually by less than 10 years)
  • In 15-20% of patients, arthritis appears before psoriasis. Occasionally, arthritis and psoriasis appear simultaneously.
  • In some cases, patients may experience only stiffness and pain, with few objective findings. In a patient displaying musculoskeletal symptoms without a history of psoriasis, the diagnosis can be derived by studying the family history of psoriasis and the pattern of arthritis. The musculoskeletal symptoms are usually insidious in onset.
  • Pain and swelling affecting joints and enthuses (the connective tissue between tendon/ligament and bone)
  • The course is generally one of intermittent exacerbation followed by varying periods of complete or near-complete remission

Skin involvement – psoriatic arthritis skin rash

One of the most common psoriatic arthritis symptoms is a rash: thick red skin covered with flaky white patches.
One may notice the following skin lesions in the context of psoriatic arthritis:

  • Scaly, erythematous plaques
  • Guttate lesions
  • Lakes of pus
  • Erythroderma

In one study, arthritis was noted more frequently in patients with severe skin disease.In patients presenting with an undefined seronegative polyarthritis, looking for psoriases in hidden sites, such as the scalp (where psoriasis frequently is mistaken for dandruff), perineum, intergluteal cleft, and umbilicus is extremely important. The rash may come and go. There can be extended periods where the patient can be rash-free. Certain conditions not limited to but including stress, infections, and injuries, have the capacity to trigger rash outbreaks. The rash typically develops on the Elbows, Knees, scalp, lower back, genitals, around the belly button, and between the buttocks

Nail involvement

Nails anomalies are involved in 80% of patients with psoriatic arthritis. Some of the common anomalies are

  • The occurrence of horizontal depression in the nail plate also known as Beau lines
  • Leukonychia – discoloration of the nail
  • Onycholysis – painless detachment of the nail from nail beds
  • Oil spots
  • Subungual hyperkeratosis
  • Splinter hemorrhages
  • Spotted lunulae
  • Transverse ridging
  • Cracking of the free edge of the nail

Extra-articular manifestations

Eye involvement, either conjunctivitis or uveitis, is reported in 7-33% of patients. The uveitis is more often bilateral, chronic, and posterior.
We can find Aortic valve insufficiency in <4% of patients after a long-standing disease.

Risk factors for psoriatic arthritis:

1) Family history of psoriatic arthritis
2) Psoriasis
3) Genetics
4) Age
5) Obesity
6) Smoking
7) Environmental causes

Psoriatic arthritis diagnosis

The Classification Criteria for Psoriatic Arthritis (CASPAR) consist of established inflammatory articular disease with at least 3 points from the following features:

  • Current psoriasis (assigned a score of 2)
  • A history of psoriasis (in the absence of current psoriasis; assigned a score of 1)
  • A family history of psoriasis (in the absence of current psoriasis and history of psoriasis; assigned a score of 1)
  • Dactylitis (assigned a score of 1)
  • Juxta-articular new-bone formation (assigned a score of 1)
  • RF negativity (assigned a score of 1)
  • Nail dystrophy (assigned a score of 1)
  • Autoantibodies are generally negative.
  • Acute phase reactants, such as ESR and CRP, are raised in only a proportion of patients with active disease.
  • X-rays may be normal or show erosive change with joint space narrowing.
  • Features favoring Psoriatic Arthritis over Rheumatoid Arthritis include the characteristic distribution of proliferative erosions with marked new bone formation, absence of periarticular osteoporosis, and osteosclerosis.
  • Imaging of the axial skeleton often reveals features similar to those in chronic reactive arthritis, with coarse, asymmetrical, non-marginal syndesmophytes and asymmetrical sacroiliitis.
  • MRI and ultrasound with power Doppler are increasingly employed to detect synovial inflammation and inflammation at the entheses.

Psoriatic arthritis treatment

A qualified physician decides the line of treatment based on the manifestation and severity of the disease. Treatment may include medical, surgical, and physical therapies. Medical treatment regimens include the use of

  • nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs),
  • Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors, and
  • Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs)

In patients with severe skin inflammation, medications such as methotrexate, retinoic-acid derivatives, and psoralen plus ultraviolet (UV) light are considered. These agents have been shown to work on skin and joint manifestations. Intra-articular injection of entheses or single inflamed joints with corticosteroids may be particularly effective in some patient

Surgical care

  • Arthroscopic synovectomy has proven to be an efficient way of treating intractable, persistent, monoarticular synovitis.
  • Joint replacement and forms of reconstructive therapy are occasionally necessary.
  • Patients in sharp pain or with significant contractures may be referred for possible surgical intervention; however, high re-occurrence rates are seen after surgical release, especially in hand.
  • Hip and knee joint replacements have been successful.
  • A combination of arthrodesis, arthroplasty, and bone grafts to lengthen the fingers is used for arthritis mutilans, where surgical intervention is usually directed towards salvaging the hand.

Physical therapy

The rehabilitation treatment program should be tailor-made for psoriatic arthritis patients and should commence early in the disease. Physical Therapy should account for:

  • Rest: Local and systemic
  • Exercise: Passive, active, stretching, strengthening, and endurance
  • Modalities: Heat, cold
  • Orthotics: Upper and lower extremities, spinal

The general measure for a comfortable living for people affected by psoriatic arthritis should include,

  • Use of assistive devices for gait and adaptive devices for self-care tasks including modifications to homes and automobiles
  • Educating self and family about the disease, energy conservation techniques, and joint protection
  • Possible vocational readjustments.

With proper lifestyle changes, psoriatic arthritis can be controlled and treated effectively if they can consult the doctor in time. Reach out to VIMS experts who can guide you to maintain a healthy lifestyle and find the best possible treatment for your condition.

Also, Read Rheumatoid Arthritis and exercise skeptics

Dry Mouth: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Dry mouth, also known as Xerostomia, When you don’t make enough saliva, your mouth gets dry. The role played by saliva to keep the balance in the human body often goes unnoticed. It plays a significant role

  • In managing the PH balance of your mouth
  • To keep your taste sense alive
  • To remove acidity from the mouth
  • By making chewing and swallowing easier
  • In preventing bacteria and fungal growth in the mouth
  • In maintaining oral hygiene

If not for saliva, people will experience tooth decay, fungal infections, and many more problems leading to major health concerns. When the salivary glands do not generate enough saliva to maintain this delicate balance, it causes dry mouth or xerostomia.
The condition commonly causes dry throat, bad breath, and chapped lips, leaving you feeling thirsty even after consuming enough liquids.
Though it is not a severe medical condition, if left untreated, it can cause serious damage to your overall wellbeing, since the mouth is the entry point for supplying the energy required for the body.

dry mouth causes

Dry Mouth Causes

One of the most straightforward reasons for dry mouth is anxiety and stress, which is treatable easily. The other common cause is medications. There are over 400 known medications that cause dry mouth on consumption. In such cases, once you stop taking those medicines, xerostomia also goes away.

Other mouth dryness reasons include:

  • Dehydration
  • Aging
  • Pregnancy
  • Breathing through mouth
  • Snoring can cause dry throat at night
  • Smoking
  • Using drugs like methamphetamine
  • Depression
  • Nerve damage
  • Botulism poisoning
  • Salivary gland infection
  • Diabetes
  • Anemia
  • Sleep apnea
  • Medications such as high/low BP tablets, antidepressants, and appetite suppressants
  • Hormonal imbalance
  • Surgical removal of salivary gland
  • Cystic Fibrosis
  • Cancer radiation therapy in the head or neck region
  • Autoimmune disorders such as Sjogren’s syndrome, HIV/AIDS
  • Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease

Dry Mouth Symptoms

A dry mouth often is not life-threatening. Keeping yourself hydrated should resolve the issue if you are experiencing dry mouth because of dehydration or anxiety.
Only when the following symptoms persist and realize your salivary glands are not producing enough saliva, consult your doctor immediately to get to the underlying cause of dry mouth.

A few of the common symptoms are

  • Stickiness in your mouth
  • Frequently being thirsty
  • Dry mouth and sore throat
  • Sudden dry mouth
  • Thick and stringy saliva
  • Bad breath
  • Difficulty in chewing and swallowing
  • Difficulty in speaking and hoarseness
  • Dry or grooved tongue
  • Change in the sense of taste
  • Experiencing dry mouth in the morning
  • Problems wearing dentures
  • Chapped or cracked lips
  • Increased tooth decay problems

Dry Mouth Treatment

In case your dry mouth is arising because of an underlying health condition, your doctor will adjust or prescribe medicines to correct the saliva production.
A thorough examination is needed to find the underlying cause of dry mouth. The dentist or the health care expert will gauge saliva production under both salivary gland stimulated and non-stimulated conditions. They will also inspect for blockages in the salivary gland or if the glands are infected. Based on their investigation, they will suggest reliable remedies to correct the condition.

  • The doctor can reduce and change the medication causing the dry mouth.
  • They can prescribe over-the-counter mouth rinses, artificial saliva, or moisturizers to minimize dry mouth conditions, offering protection against tooth decay.
  • Prescribe medicine to stimulate the salivary glands to produce more saliva.
  • Protect your teeth and gums by suggesting the use of proper oral care products.
  • In case the salivary glands are damaged, they will suggest corrective surgeries to restore the salivary gland’s function. In extreme cases, when the salivary gland is removed, doctors will prescribe medications to help you keep the mouth’s moisture and saliva replacement medications.

Home Remedies for Dry Mouth

home remedies for dry mouth

We can divide home remedies for curing dry mouth problems into four parts.

Saliva Preservation: This included developing healthy breathing practices such as breathing through the nose instead of the mouth. In case the patient has snoring problems, the doctor will suggest optimal sleeping positions and necessary measures to get rid of the problem to ensure more comfortable breathing patterns through the night. Avoiding alcohol and caffeine consumption and smoking can significantly reduce dry mouth.

Saliva substitution: Consuming more fluids like water, fruit, and vegetable juices without sugar and salt, sucking on ice chips, can help you avoid dry mouth. There are several oral care products like oral lubricants that act as saliva substitutes. These are to be taken under the doctors’ guidance to avoid long-term damage to the salivary glands and be over-dependent on these medicines.

Saliva Stimulation: Several stimulants like non-sugar chewing gum play a vital role in keeping the salivary gland active. Lozenges or chewable tablets also help stimulate saliva production in the mouth and thus avoid mouth dryness.

Prevention of Infections: Maintaining proper oral hygiene goes a long way in keeping infections at bay. Keeping up your dentist appointments, avoiding eating sugar candies, and other food that can damage your tooth and gums leading to disease frequently, are few measures to be taken personally to prevent dry mouth.

Other preventive measures to avoid dry mouth and improve saliva flow:

  • Suck on sugar-and-acidic-free candy or chew sugar-free gum to stimulate the salivary glands.
  • Keep the body hydrated by consuming plenty of water and liquids.
  • Use fluoride-reinforced toothpaste to protect your teeth.
  • Regularly visit your dentist to keep track of your oral health.
  • Develop the habit of breathing through your nose. As much as possible, avoid breathing through the mouth.
  • In a dry season like summer and winter, when the humidity is low, use a room vaporizer to add moisture to the air in the living area.
  • Exercise well and keep anxiety and stress at bay. Develop a healthy lifestyle to keep yourself healthy.
  • Keep track of your diet. Consume healthy food to keep your body alive and help it function at an optimal level.
  • Avoid self-medicating when in doubt.

Dry mouth is easily treatable at homes if the underlying causes are simple. We suggest you consult your dentist or doctor if the symptoms mentioned in the article persist.
The health care specialist can help correct the medications or guide you in the right direction to resolve the problem of dry mouth.
Do not forget to stay hydrated by consuming liquids. Keep up your dentist appointments to avoid complications arising in the future. For the body to function well, every detail has to be in balance. Keeping your health in check is in your hands.

Also, Read How To Deal With Bad Breath On The Go

Scoliosis Types, Causes, Symptoms & Occupational Therapy

Scoliosis is a sideways curvature of the spine that mostly occurs much more often during the growth in spurt just before the stage of puberty. While Scoliosis can be caused by such conditions as cerebral palsy and muscular dystrophy, the cause of most Scoliosis is still unknown. About 3% of adolescents on average have Scoliosis.

Most cases observed in adolescents are Scoliosis mild, but some spine deformities continue to get more severe as children grow. Scoliosis can sometimes be disabling. An especially severe spinal curve can initially reduce with the chest amount, making it much more difficult for the lungs to function properly.

Children who have had mild Scoliosis are monitored closely, usually with the scanned X-ray reports, to see if that spinal curve is getting much worse. In many cases, no treatment usually is necessary. Some of the children will be required to wear a brace to stop the curve from worsening. Others may need to have the surgery to keep the Scoliosis from worsening much more and to straighten with severe scoliosis cases.

Scoliosis Types, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Symptoms of Scoliosis

The main signs and symptoms for Scoliosis commonly include:

  • Uneven shoulders
    One-shoulder may blade that appears more prominent than the other one.
  • Uneven waist
    One hip became higher than the other one. If this spinal scoliosis curve gets much worse, the spine may also rotate or even get the twist, again with the curving it as side to side. This causes the ribs to pile on one side of the body to stick that out farther than on the other side of it.

Causes for Scoliosis

Doctors eventually don’t know what mainly causes this most common type of Scoliosis. Although it may appear to be involved with hereditary factors because the disorder tends to get run into the families. Less of the common types of Scoliosis it may be caused due to the followings:

  • Neuromuscular conditions mainly such as cerebral palsy or even muscular dystrophy.
  • Congenital disabilities are affecting the development of the bones, most of the spines.
  • Injuries that to or even the infections of the ranges.

Risk factors for Scoliosis

Risk factors in the development of the most common type of Scoliosis observed mainly include:

  • Age- Signs, and symptoms for Scoliosis typically begin with spurt growth that occurs just before the level of puberty.
  • Sex- Although both boys and girls may be developing mild Scoliosis all at about the same rate, the girls have had a much higher risk of the curve to get worsening and even require the needed treatment.
  • Family history- Scoliosis can even run into families, but most of the children with Scoliosis don’t have any family history of this disease

Complications endured in Scoliosis

While most people with Scoliosis may have had a mild form of this kind of spinal disorder, Scoliosis may sometimes appear, causing complications, including:

  • Lung and heart damage: In severe Scoliosis, the rib cage may get up pressed against the lungs and even heart damage, making it much more difficult for them to breathe and get much more challenging for their heart to get pumped up.
  • Back problems: Adults who have had Scoliosis as a child are more likely to have chronic back pain than the other people in their general population.
  • Appearance: As scoliosis gets worse, it may cause much more noticeable physical changes, mainly including varying levels in both the hips and shoulders, prominent ribs, and even a shift of both their waist and trunk to one of the sides. Individuals who have Scoliosis often get to become self-conscious about their appearance

Types of Scoliosis

1.Idiopathic Scoliosis (70%) Idiopathic Scoliosis is one of the most common types of Scoliosis that is approximately 70 % observed in adolescent and adult patients. Idiopathic Scoliosis is caused by environmental or also genetic abnormalities.

  • Idiopathic Scoliosis Caused due to Genetic Disorder-On average 30% of the idiopathic Scoliosis observed in adolescents is caused by genetic abnormalities. Research has suggested the genetic variation in many of their patients with Scoliosis, but the specific gene has not yet been identified. Scoliosis is associated with genetic disorders of the spinal bone malformation, or maybe due to bone metabolism and even a connective tissue disorder.
  • Idiopathic Scoliosis Caused By Environmental Abnormalities- The cause is yet unknown in this kind of idiopathic Scoliosis. Scoliosis in this category was thought to be caused mainly due to Diet deficiency or Mental abuse, and the stressor may be due to the Intake of toxins and other chemicals as the contamination of drinking water.

2. Congenital Scoliosis (20%) The congenital malformation is observed during three weeks of having gestation in the uterus. The cause of this congenital Scoliosis is either due to hereditary or maybe even as a familial disorder.

3. Associated Scoliosis (10%) This type of Scoliosis has occasionally been associated with various neuromuscular and musculoskeletal disorders. The spinal vertebral column’s abnormal curvature is caused because of weakness in muscles or the skeletal system. Muscles and the skeletal system cannot get any support to hold up the weight and thus, results in Scoliosis.

Occupational Therapy for the Treatment of Scoliosis

The Therapist will evaluate all the daily activities, with the optimum need for manual work and all of the posture during that table work.

Occupational Therapy for the Treatment of Scoliosis

  • Posture: The Therapist will evaluate the correct posture to complete the task during all manual work or even the table work.
  • Assessment: The Therapist will then assess your manual’s tolerance and the table for getting the optimum duration.
  • Evaluation: The Therapist will then be evaluated for Scoliosis patients periodically and will also intervene if the symptoms are getting exaggerated and anatomical deformity has worsened.
  • Intervention: Occupational Therapist will be advisable to change the job or even change the hours of the time table for work so that the scoliosis patient can always cope with it. Therapists may even demand to have eliminated manual labor as well.
  • Support: Therapists may get to modify all the treatment and advise touse braces for their patients that are suffering from Scoliosis. Occupational therapists may be prescribed as a piece of equipment for supporting the activities like a cane or even the walker.


Scoliosis is a sideways curvature of the spine that mostly occurs much more often during the growth in spurt just before the stage of puberty. Some of the children will be required to wear a brace to stop the curve from worsening. Others may need to have the surgery to keep the Scoliosis from worsening much more and to straighten with severe scoliosis cases. If this spinal scoliosis curve gets much worse, the spine may also rotate or even get a twist, again curving it from side to side. While most of the people with Scoliosis may have had a mild form of this kind of spinal disorder, Scoliosis may appear sometimes Therapist will basically evaluate all the daily activities, with the optimum need of manual work and all of the posture during that table work.

Consult your doctor if you notice any of Scoliosis’s signs or symptoms, mainly in your child. However, mild curves can also develop without the parent or even child knowing about it because they may appear very gradually. Usually, that doesn’t cause much pain. Doctors eventually don’t understand what mainly causes this most common type of Scoliosis. However, it may appear to be involved with hereditary factors because the disorder tends to get run into the families.

Burning Sensation in Feet: Causes, Treatment and Home Remedies

Burning sensation in feet

The extensively familiar reason for burning feet is nerve damage, steadily associated with diabetes. There are distinct probable reasons though, also. The irritation and discomfort from burning feelings in your feet can be periodic or continual and span from mild to serious. Your soles may sense heated, tingling, numb, or prickling. The irritation is often painful at night time.

A burning sensation in your soles may be inflicted by nerve ravage in the legs, also named neuropathy. Albeit several medical circumstances can be the reason for burning feet, diabetes is greatly common. Vastly burning feet therapies concentrate on staving off further nerve damage and decreasing irritation and pain.

burning sensation in feet

Causes of burning feet

While exhaustion or skin disease or infection can result in interim inflamed and burning feet. Burning feet are greatly often an indication of nerve defect (peripheral neuropathy). Burning feet syndrome is caused by Vitamin deficiency anemia. Nerve damage retains several distinct reasons, comprising chronic alcohol use, diabetes, a certain B vitamin reduction, exposure to particular toxins, and HIV disease.

The feeling of burning feet can appear from a vast range of circumstances. It’s significant to discern a reason so you can obtain therapy or treatment. Several reasons, such as a sole fungus such as athlete’s foot ad shoes that are very tight or uncomfortable, can be fixed effortlessly.

Here are some apparent causes of burning and inflamed feet

Alcohol use disorder
Exceedingly alcohol usage can direct to another kind of nerve defect called alcoholic neuropathy. In expansion to the feeling of burning feet, signs include:

  • Muscle deficiency, muscle cramps, and damage to muscle procedure
  • Bowel dysfunction and urinary
  • Dizziness
  • Distorted speech

Diabetic neuropathy (nerve pain affected by diabetes)

Years of uncontrollable high blood sugar can deliberately ravage your blood nerves. High blood sugar lessens the communication of signs from the veins. This can influence feeling to several portions of the physique, comprising the soles. High blood sugar also diminishes the blood container walls that hold nutrients and oxygen to the nerves.

Complex regional pain syndrome. 
CRPS happens in a leg, extensively common after surgery or wound. It pertains to nerve defects that influence the signaling from the backbone/spine and brain. Signs comprises :

  • Burning irritation
  • Swelling
  • Discrepancies in skin complexion or texture
  • Complex Regional Pain Syndrome can impact the immune system.

Feeling of Burning feet can be one of several symptoms of different diseases and syndrome, including:

  • Lyme disease
  • Syphilis
  • HIV
  • Shingles

Remedial chemicals utilized to destroy cancer disease cells that may have side impacts, comprising acentric neuropathy. Further muscular and nervous systems side impacts of chemotherapy may comprise:

  • Exhausted, achy, or weak sensation in the body and muscles.
  • Calmed down motor skills or reflexes.
  • Equilibrium and coordination issues
  • Muscle deficiency
  • Irritation and discomfort

Tarsal tunnel disease
This syndrome pertains to a circumstance where the veins/nerve that drives from the ankle to the sole is extracted because of inflammation or a wound. This can bring discomfort and swell to the foot. The irritation may expand up the limb.

It is significant to receive ahead therapy for this ailment just before the nerve defect comes to be permanent.

Athletes foot
This is an infectious fungal disease often detected in athletes. Moreover, this is also recognized as tinea pedis. It can also influence the hands and toenails.

An underactive thyroid alters the equilibrium of hormones in the human body. This can result in inflammation that imposes a burden on your veins and nerves. In expansion to burning sensation soles, signs of hypothyroidism comprise tiredness, dry skin, and weight gain.

Vitamin depletion anemia
These vitamin B (Vitamin B 12, vitamin B 6, and vitamin 9) deficiencies can be the reason for burning soles and muscle coordination issues.

Anemia, a weakness in functional red blood cells(RBC), may too due to vitamin B depletion. Other signs of vitamin poverty anemia encompass exhaustion, dizziness, and lack of breath.

Chronic kidney disease

When your kidneys quit functioning appropriately, poisons accumulate in your blood. This can direct to the itching and tingling of feet. It can also be resulted in:

  • Decreased urine production
  • Unexplained deprivation in breathing
  • Sickness
  • Turmoil

Treatment options for burning feet

Medication for burning feet relies on the underlying reasons. Always, therapy can be easy and straightforward. You may need:

  • Antifungal medication for athlete’s feet.
  • Better safe and relaxed shoes
  • A remedial supplement in your shoes
  • Vitamin B supplements
  • Thyroid inserts

If diabetes is affected, you may require to alter your nutriment or drugs. Your physician may also specify medications to enable nerve irritation.

For serious nerve injury, nerve stimulation may assist, like:

  • Electrical nerve impulse
  • Laser treatment
  • Magnetic therapy
  • Light treatment

Exploration is moreover going on for distinct fresh pain treatments.

Alternative therapies, like acupuncture, may enable some people to relief their sensation in feet.

Home remedies for burning feet pain relief

It is crucial to visit your physician about this kind of discomfort and pain. But there are some aspects you can attempt at your home for immediate relief:

home remedies for burning feet

Rinse your soles in frozen water and ice baths for some minutes. Nonetheless, this is not suggested for victims with erythromelalgia. It may ravage their skin.
Chill water is handily accessible compared to different other home treatments, hereupon it’s one of the useful treatments for inflammation foot and is extremely easy. Numbness, Swelling, tingling in the soles will be alleviated by this treatment. Compress the foot tub with frozen water and rinse it for some moment. Then put up with comfort for some period and rinse it then again. Playback this several times regularly. Recall that rinsing in icy water is suggested against Erythromelalgia. It may direct to responsive ulcers, flaring, and different skin issues.

These few easy home remedies you can perform by yourself at home. Often choose simple and natural treatments because the adverse impacts are extremely limited than contradicted to chemical solutions.

Soak your soles in an apple cider solution and Epsom salts. If you are suffering from diabetes then ask your physician before trying this remedy.

Apple cider vinegar is supposed one of the reasonable home treatments for inflammation feet and can equalize the pH level of your physique. You can utilize it in two different manners,

You can drink a mixed solution of some teaspoons of apple cider vinegar and a cup of water each day.

Also, You can rinse your soles in the hot water and put in some apple cider vinegar in its hot water. Put in some sea salt to obtain a satisfactory outcome. Similarly, for an instant outcome, you can perform this procedure twice a day.

Epsom salt due to its magnesium portion reduces irritation and swelling in the feet. Also, can alleviate the inflammation sensation and calm your soles. It’s one of the beneficial home treatments for burning sensation in beneficial put up with turmeric inoculated. The curcumin in turmeric may deliver relaxation and contentment for nerve irritation.

Curcumin is recognized to have defensive anti-swelling, antimicrobial and antioxidant impacts. It is also a thought belief source to enable neurological signs.

Turmeric enables enhancing flow and blood circulation. Furthermore, turmeric retains curcumin elements and anti-inflammatory commodities which assist in decreasing irritation in your soles and limbs.

  • Pertain to a useful lotion that includes capsaicin or lidocaine. A home formulated ginger or turmeric remedy may function excessively.
  • Ginger is also a helpful component for inflammation feet. It enables decreasing burning feelings in the soles and as well as improves blood flow. Put up with a teaspoon of juice of ginger, put in some olive oil, and blend it sufficiently. Then massage your limb and feet with the solution for 15-20 minutes. Reiterate this procedure once a day. Moreover, you can drink ginger tea regularly till the situation gets satisfactory.
  • Bitter Gourd: You can try bitter Gourd because it’s one of the useful treatments for burning sensation in feet for a lengthy period. Ready the paste of bitter gourd with bitter gourd leafage and mix water, then pertain to the mixture on the affected point to decrease the symptoms. Reiterate the method if it’s essential.
  • Massage your soles or feet to assist in enhancing blood circulation and flow.

This Following Ayurvedic treatment that functioned for an Ayurveda believer.

Elements for therapy

  • Indian jujube/date / Plum leaves
  • Ziziphus jujuba
  • Rice congee

How to prepare:
Chop and grind congee and leaves and prepare a good consistency paste of them.


  • Rub your foot with this mixture.
  • Prevent salt, spices, chilli, and tamarind.
  • Consume rice with fresh green gram and put in some ghee.
  • You can also eat rice with sugar and milk.
  • Drink barley water, watermelon juice, buttermilk, and coconut water.

However, burning and inflammation feet are symptoms of several medical issues but this issue may also happen if you stroll continuously for hours, particularly in summer seizing a lot of pressure, uncertainty in your brain, the anxiety on the mind.

Consuming a healthy diet and balanced food, consume limited sugar and salt, and everyday strolling, exercise, yoga, and meditation assist in the overcoming of this issue.

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