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Laparoscopic Surgery

Laparoscopic Surgery Advantages / Risks

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Advantages


There are a number of advantages to the patient with laparoscopic surgery versus an open procedure. These include:

  • Smaller incision, which reduces pain and shortens recovery time.
  • Less pain, leading to less pain medication needed.
  • Although procedure times are usually slightly longer, hospital stay is less, and often with a same day discharge which leads to a faster return to everyday living.
  • Reduced exposure of internal organs to possible external contaminants thereby reduced risk of acquiring infections.
  • Can be used in Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) surgery to put the eggs back into the fallopian tubes
  • Reduces post-operative complications.

Risks

Some of the risks are briefly described below:

  • The most significant risks are from trocar injuries to either blood vessels or small or large bowel. The risk of such injuries is increased in patients who are obese or have a history of prior abdominal surgery. The initial trocar is typically inserted blindly. While these injuries are rare, significant complications can occur. Vascular injuries can result in hemorrhage that may be life threatening. Injuries to the bowel can cause a delayed peritonitis. It is very important that these injuries be recognized as early as possible.
  • Some patients have sustained electrical burns unseen by surgeons who are working with electrodes that leak current into surrounding tissue. The resulting injuries can result in perforated organs and can also lead to peritonitis.
  • There may be an increased risk of hypothermia and peritoneal trauma due to increased exposure to cold, dry gases during insufflation. The use of heated and humidified CO2 may reduce this risk.

Limitations of Laparoscopic surgery
There are no disadvantages as such, but laparoscopic surgery has limitations. As a lot of sophisticated equipment and instruments are required, and this type of operation require specialized training and is difficult to perform, it is not available at all places at present. It is associated with similar complications as in open surgeries.

Operative procedure itself may be more expensive as sophisticated equipment is used. All operations may not be possible by key -hole surgery as only small and limited instruments can be used. In some cases, it may be necessary to convert to open operation during laparoscopic surgery due to either severity of the disease or when bleeding cannot be controlled. Hence the option of open operation is there in every patient undergoing key-hole surgery, and doctors are always prepared for it, however such a possibility is rare.

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