Vydehi Institute of Dental Sciences
Oral Pathology

Oral Pathology Curriculum

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Curriculum

Human Oral and Dental Anatomy, Embryology, Physiology
and Histology

Theory - 105 Hrs
I BDS
I. DENTAL ANATOMY:  
1) Introduction, Dental Anthropology & Comparative Dental Anatomy

3 hours

 
2) Function of teeth.  
 
3) Nomenclature.  
 
4) Tooth numbering systems (Different system)
(Dental formula).
 
 
5) Chronology of deciduous and permanent teeth.
(First evidence of calcification, crown completion, eruption and root
completion).
2 hours
 
6) Deciduous teeth 4 hours
a) Nomenclature.  
b) Importance of deciduous teeth.  
c) Form & function, comparative dental.  
 
7) Gross morphology of deciduous teeth. 5 hours
 
8) General differences between deciduous and permanent teeth.  
 
9) Morphology of permanent teeth.
Chronology, measurements, description of individual
surface and variations of each tooth.
3 hours
 
10) Morphological differences between incisors, premolars and
molars of same arch.
10 hours
 
11) Morphological differences between maxillary and mandibular.
incisors, canines, premolars and molars of the opposite arch.
5 hours
 
12) Internal Anatomy of Pulp. 1hours
 
13) Occlusion:

8 hours

a) Development of occlusion.  
b) Dental arch form.  
c) Compensating curves of dental arches.  
d) Angulations of individual teeth in relation to various planes.  
e) Functional form of the teeth at their incisal and occlusal thirds.  
f) Facial relations of each tooth in one arch to its antagonist or antagonists in
the opposing arch in centric occlusion.
 
g) Occlusal contact and interscusp relations of all the teeth of one
arch with those in the opposing arch in centric occlusion.
 
h) Occlusal contact and intercusp relations of all the teeth during
the various functional mandibular movements.
 
i) Neurobehavioural aspect of occlusion.  
 
14) Tempero Mandibular Joint (T.M.J.):
- Gross Anatomy and articulation.
- Muscles (Muscles of mastication).
- Mandibular position and movements.
- Histology.
- Clinical considerations with special emphasis on Myofacial Pain
Dysfunction Syndrome (MPDS) - (Desirable to Know)
5 hour
 
II. ORAL PHYSIOLOGY:  
1) Theories of calcification.
1 hour
 
2) Mastication and deglutition.
1 hour
 
III. ORAL EMBRYOLOGY, ANATOMY and HISTOLOGY
 
1) Development and growth of face and jaws.
1 hour
 
2) Development of tooth.
6 hours
 
3) Cranial nerves with more emphasis on V.VII and IX.
1 hour
 
4) Blood supply, nerve supply and lymphatic drainage of teeth
and surrounding structures.
1 hour
 
5) Cell - structure and function.
1 hour
 
6) Maxillary sinus
- Structure, Variations, Histology
function and clinical considerations.
3 hours
 
7) Salivary Glands
- Classification, structure, function,
Histology, Clinical Considerations and age changes.
4 hour
 
8) Oral Mucous membrane:
- Definitions, General consideration.
- Functions and classifications.
- Structure and microscopic appearance of gingiva, palate,
lips, alveolar mucosa, tongue, floor of mouth.
- Gingival sulcus and dento gingival junction.
- Clinical considerations and age changes.
8 hours
 
  ENAMEL:
- Physical characteristics, chemical properties structure.
- Development - Life cycle of ameloblasts Amelogenesis
and Mineralisation.
- Clinical considerations.
- Age changes.
8 hours
 
  DENTIN:
- Physical characteristics, chemical properties, structure.
- Types of dentin.
- Dentin innervation and hypersensitivity.
- Development - Dentinogenesis and mineralisation.
- Clinical considerations.
- Age Changes.
6 hours
 
  PULP: Anatomy, structural features, functions, pulp organs.
- Developments.
- Clinical consideration
- Age changes.
5 hours
 
  CEMENIUM:
- Physical characteristics, chemical properties, structure.
- Cementogenesis.
- Clinical consideration
- Age changes.
5 hours
 
  PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT:
-Cells and fibers
- Functions
- Development
- Clinical Considerations.
- Age Changes
5 hours
 
  ALVEOLAR BONE:
- Physical characteristics, chemical properties structure.
- Structure
- Development.
- Internal reconstruction.
- Clinical consideration.
5 hours
 
  HISTOCHEMISTRY OF ORAL TISSUES. (Tissue processing)
5 hours
 
  THEORIES OF ERUPTION AND SHEDDING. (Physiological tooth movement)
5 hours
 

Preparation of Ground sections, haematoxylin & Eosin sections & decalcified section - (Desirable to know).


Practical : 250 Hours
  DENTAL ANATOMY:
Carving on wax blocks:-
a. Cube, rectangle, cone and cylinder
b. Individual tooth - Only permanent teeth of both arches.
- Central, Incisors, Lateral, Canines, Premolars and 1st molar.
 
     
 

HISTOLOGY:List of Histology slides:-


Development of tooth:
01. Bud stage of tooth development.
02. Cap stage of tooth development.
03. Early bell stage of tooth development.
04. Late Bell stage of tooth development.
05. Root formation.

 
     
  ENAMEL:
01. Enamel rod.
02. Hunter-Schreger Bands
03. Tufts, Lamellae, Spindles.
04. Incremental lines of Retzius.
05. Neonatal line.
06. Gnarled Enamel.
 
     
  DENTIN:
01. Dentino - Enamel junction.
02. Dentinal Tubules.
03. Incremental lines of Von Ebner.
04. Contour lines of owen.
05. Neonatel line.
06. Tomes granular layer.
07. Interglobular Dentin.
08. Secondary Dentin.
09. Intratubular Dentin.
10. Intertubular Dentin.
 
     
  CEMENTUM:
01. Cellular cementum.
02. Acellular cementum.
03. Cemento enamel junction
- Type 1 - 60% type - Overlapping.
- Type 2 - 30% type - Butt
- Type 3 - 10% type - Cementum & Enamel do not meet.
04. Sharpey's fibers.
05. Hypercemntosis.
 
     
  PULP:
01. Zones of Pulp.
02. Pulp stones.
 
     
  PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT:
01. Principle fibers of Periodontal ligament
- Apical, Horizontal, Oblique, Aveolar crest, Interradicular, Transeptal
 
     
  ALVEOLAR BONE:
01. Haversian system.
02. Trabeculated bone.
03. Mature and immature bone.
 
     
  SALIVARY GLANDS:
01. Mucous gland.
02. Serous gland.
03. Mixed gland.
 
     
  MAXILLARY SINUS:
Sinus lining (Pseudostratified ciliated columnar)
(Desirable to know)
 
     
  ORAL MUCOUS MEMBTAIN:
01. Parakeratinised epithelium.
02. Orthokeratinised epithelium.
03. Palate - Anterolateral zone.
04. Palate - Posterolateral zone.
05. Alveolar mucosa.
06. Vermilion border of lip.
07. Tongue - Circumvallate Papillae.
- Fungiform Papillae
- Filiform Papillae
08. Dentogingival junction.
09. Skin
 
     
  Tempero Mandibular Joint (T.M.J.):
01. Histological section (Desirable to know).
 
     
  LECTURE DEMONSTRATION :
01. Identification of Individual teeth.
- Deciduous.
- Permanent.
02. Mixed dentition using study models.
03. Cross - Section & T.S. of mandible and maxilla with teeth present using study models.
Demonstration of preparation of ground section, Decalcification,
Paraffin section and H & E Staining.
 

Oral Pathology and Microbiology

Theory : 25 Hours Practical : 50 Hours
II BDS
1) Developmental Disturbances of oral and para oral structures 15 hour
a) Developmental disturbances of Jaws Agnathia, Micrognathia, Macrognathia, Facial Hemihypertrophy, Facial Hemiatropy  
b) Developmental Disturbances of lips and palate
- Congenital Lip pits and Commissural pits and fistulas
- Double lip, Cleft lip, cleft Palate, Chelitis Glandularis, Chelitis Granulomatosa, Hereditary Intestinal Polyposis, Hereditary Melanotid Macule
 
c) Developmental disturbances of Oral Mucosa
- Fordyce's Granules
- Focal epithelial Hyperplasia.
 
d) Developmental disturbances of gingiva
- Fibromatosis Gingiva, Retrocuspid Papilla
 
e) Developmental Disturbances of Tongue
- Macroglossia, Microglossia, Ankyloglossia, Cleft Tongue, Fissured Tongue, Median Rhomboid Glossitis, Benign Migratory Glossitis, Hairy Tongue.
 
f) Development disturbances of oral lymphoid tissue:
- Reactive lymphoid aggregates
- Lymphoid hamartoma
- Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia
- Lympho-epithelial cyst
 
g) Developmental disturbances of salivary glands
- - Aplasia, Xerostomia, Hyperplasia of the palatal glands, Atresia, Abberrancy, Stafine's cyst
 
h) Developmental disturbances in size of teeth:
- Microdontia, Macrodontia
 
i) Developmental disturbances in the shape of the teeth:
- Fusion, Germination, Concrescence, Dilacerations, Talon's Cusp, Dens in Dente, Dens Evaginatus, Taurodontism, Supernumerary Roots, Enameloma
 
j) Developmental Disturbances in number of teeth
- Anodontia, Supernumerary teeth, Predecidious and Post Permanent Dentition
 
k) Developmental Disturbances in Structure of Teeth:
- Amelogenesis Imperfecta, Enamel Hypoplasia, Dentinogenesis Imperfecta, Dentinal dysplasia, Regional Odontodysplasia, Shell Teeth.
 
l) Developmental Disturbances in eruption of teeth:
- Premature Eruptions, Eruption Sequestrum, Delayed Eruption, Multiple Unerupted teeth, Submerged Teeth.
 
m) Developmental / Fissural cysts of the Oral cavity
- - Median palatal cyst, Globulomaxillary cyst, Median Mandibular cyst, Naso-alveolar cyst, Palatal cyst of neonates, Thyroglossal duct cyst, Epidermoid, and Dermoid cyst, Nasopalatine cyst.
 
 
2) Dental Caries
- Theories
- Clinical features
- Classification
- Histopathology
- Immunology
- Caries activity Tests
- Factors Influencing Caries
5 hour
 
3) Diseases of the pulp and Periapical tissues
5 hour
a) Diseases of the Dental Pulp
- Pulpitis, Focal Reversible Pulpitis, Chronic Pulpitis, Pulp Polyp..
 
b) Diseases of the Periapical Tissues
- Periapical Granuloma, Periapical Abscess, Periapical Cyst
 
c Osteomyelitis
- Acute Suppurative Osteomyelitis, Chronic Focal and Diffuse Sclerosing Osteomyelitis, Garre's Ostemyelitis
 
Practicals : 50 hours

Identification of Hard and Soft Tissue Specimens

ORAL PATHOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY

ORAL PATHOLOGY

Theroy: 120 Hours
III BDS
1. Benign and malignant Tumors of Oral cavity (30 hrs)
a.) Benign tumors of epithelial tissue origin
- Papilloma, Keratoacanthoma, Nevus

 

b) Premalignant lesions and conditions:
- Definition
- Epithelial dyaplasia
- Leukoplakia, Carcinoma in situ, Erythroplakia, Palatal changes associated with reverse smoking, Oral sunmucous fibrosis.
 
c) Malignant tumors of epithelial tissue origin
- Basal cell carcinoma, Epidermoid Carcinoma (including TNM staging), Verrucous carcinoma, Malignant Melanoma.
 
d.) Benign tumors of connective tissue origin:
- Fibroma, Giant cell Fibroma, Peripheral and Central Ossifying Fibroma, Lipoma, Haemangioma (different types), Lymphangioma, Chondroma, Osteoma, Osteiod Osteoma, Benign Osteoblastoma, Tori and Multiple Exostoses.
 
e) Tumor like lesions of connective tissue origin:
Peripheral and Central giant cell granuloma, Pyogenic granuloma, Peripheral oddifying fibroma
 
f) Malignant tumors of connective tissue origin:
- Fibrosarcoma, Chondrosarcoma, Kaposis's Sarcoma, Ewing's Sarcoma, Osteosarcoma, Hodgkin's and Non Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Burkitt's Lymphoma, Multiple Myeloma, Solitary Plasma cell Myeloma.
 
g) Benign Tumors of Muscle tissue origin:
Leiomyoma, Rhabdomyoma, Congenital Epulis of Newbron, Granular Cell tumor.
 
h) Benign and Malignant Tumors of Nerve tissue origin:
- Neurofibroma and Neurofibromatosis-1, Schwannoma, Traumatic Neuroma, Melanotic Neuroectodermal tumor of infancy, Malignant Schwannoma.
 
2) Tumors of Salivary glands (8 hrs)
a) Benign tumors
- Pleomorphic adenoma
- Warthin's tumor
- Basal cell adenoma
- Canalicular adenoma
b) Malignant tumors of Salivary glands
- Malignant pleomorphic adenoma
- Adenoid Cystic carcinoma
- Acinic cell carcinoma
- Mucoepidermoid carcinoma
- Central Mucoepidermoid carcinoma
- Clear cell carcinoma
c) Non Neoplastic enlargement of Salivary glands
- Sjogren's syndrome
- Mickulicz's disease
- Necrotizing Sialometaplasia
 
3) Cysts of Odontogenic Origin and Pseudocysts
- Introduction and Classification of Cysts of Oral Region
- Odontogenic Cysts
- Odontogenic keratocyst, Dentigerous cyst, Dental lamina cyst of new born, Gingival cyst of Adults, Lateral Periodontal Cyst, Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst, Radicular cyst.
- Pseudocysts.
- Aneurysmal bone cyst, Traumatic bone cyst, mucous extravasation phenomenon.
(8 hrs)
4) Tumors of Odontogenic Origin
- Classification
BENIGN:

a) Odontogenic Epithelium without Odontogeic Ectomesenchyme – Ameloblastoma, Calicfying Epithelial Odontogenic tumor, Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor, Squamous Odontogenic Tumor.

b) Odontogenic Epithelium with Odontogeic Ectomesenchyme with or without Hard tissue formation – Ameloblatic fibroma, Ameloblastic Firo-odontoma, Odontoma, Dentinogenic Ghost cell tumor.

c) Odontogenic Ectomesenchyme with or without included Odontogenic epithelium- peripheral and Central Odontogenic Fibroma, Odontogenic Myxoma, Benign Cementoblastoma.

MALIGNANT:
a) Odntogenic carcinomas: Metastasizing Ameloblastoma, Ameloblastic Carcinoma

(9 hrs)
5) Regressive alterations of teeth

a) Attrition, abrasion, erosion, abfraction
b) Dentinal sclerosis, dead tracts, secondary dentin, pulp calcifications
c) Resorption of teeth (internal and external)
d) Hypercementosis and Cementicles

(2 hrs)
6) Infections of the Oral cavity

a) Bacterial infections: Scarlet fever, Diphtheria, Tuberculosis, Syphilis, Actinomycosis, Tetanus, Noma.

b) Viral infections: Herpes Simplex, Measles, Mumps, Chicken Pox, Herpes Zoster, Cytomegalic inclusion disease, HIV and oral manifestations of AIDS.

c) Fungal infections: Candidiasis, Histoplasmosis, Phycomycosis and Rhinosporidosis.
(10 hrs)
7) Allergic and Immunological Diseases of the Oral Cavity

- Immunological diseases: Recurrent Apthous Stomatitis, Bechet's Syndrome, Reiter's syndrome, Sarcoidosis, Wegerer's Granulomatosis
- Allergic Diseases: Angioedema, Stomatitis Medicamentosa, Stomatitis Venenata. )
(2 hrs)
8) Spread of Oral infection

a.) Cellulitis, Ludwig's angina, intra cranial complication of dental infection, Maxillary sinusitis, Focal infection and foci of infection (Definition, mechanism and significance).
(2 hrs)
9) Physical and chemical injuries of the oral cavity

a) Physical injuries of teeth

- Bruxism, Ankylosis b) Physical injuries of Bone

- Traumatic bone cyst

c) Physical injures of saoft tissues

- Traumatic ulcer, denture injuries of the mucosa, mucous retention phenomena

d) Chemical injuries of oral cavity
- Aspirin burn
- Lead, mercury and bismuth poisoning
- Acrodynia
- Silver poisoning
- Dilantin sodium- induced gingival enlargement
- Tetracycline

e) Effects of Radiation on bone and Oral Mucosa
(5 hrs)
10) Biopsy, Cytology and Healing of wounds

- Factors affecting the wound healing
- Healing of extraction wound and dry socket
- Healing of fracture
- Biopsy:
- Biopsy techniques, processing of tissues with a brief account of routine stains used, healing of biopsy wounds
- Basic aspects of cytology:
- Indications, staining of cytosmears, interpretation of cytosmears
- Re-implantation and transplantation of teeth.
(5 hrs)
11) Dieases of Bone

- Genetic:
- Osteogenesis imperfecta, Cleidocranial Dysostosis, Mandibulofacial Dystosis, Pierre Robin syndrome, Marfan's syndrome, Down's syndrome, Osteopetrosis, Achondroplasia, Cherubism.
- Fibro-osseous lesions:
- Fibrous Dysplasia
- Cement-osseous Dysplasia
- Unknown etiology:
- Paget's disease, Histocytosis-X-Disease.
- Disorders of Tempromandibular joint:
- Developmental disturbances of the TMJ
- Ankylosis of the TMJ
- Subluxation and luxation
- Myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome
(8 hrs)
12) Blood Dyscrasias

- Clinico-pathological aspects and oral manifestations of Anemias, Polycythemia, Leukopenia, Neutropenia, Agranulocytosis, Chediak-Higashi Syndrome, Leukocytosis, Infectious Mononucleosis, Leukaemias, Purpura, Haemophilia.
(4 hrs)
13) Diseases of Periodontology

- Stains, Calculus, Dental Palque
- Gingivitis, Acute Necrotisisng Ulcerative Gingivitis (ANUG), Gingival hyperplasia, Periodontitis, Juvenile Periodontitis.
(5 hrs)
14) Diseases of Skin

- Hereditary:
- Hereditary Ectodermal Dysplasia, Chondroectodermal dysplasia. Dyskeratosis Congenita, White Sponge Nevus, Hereditary Benign Intra Epithelial Dyskeratosis, Ehler-Danlos Syndrome
- Immune mediated:
- Lichen planus, Pemphigus, Benign Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid, Cicatricial Pemphigoid, Psoriasis, Erythema Multiformae, Epidermolysis Bullosa, Scleroderma, Lupus Erythematosus.
(10 hrs)
15) Detection Mechanisms of the Oral Cavity (1 hrs)
16) Introduction to Forensic Odontology

- Introduction, definition, aims and scope
- Sex and ethnic (racial) differences in tooth morphology and histological age estimation
- Determination of sex and blood groups from buccal mucosa/saliva
- Dental DNA methods
- Bite marks, Rugae patterns and Lip prints
- Dental importance of poisons and corrosives
- Overview of forensic medicine and toxicology
(2 hrs)
17) Oral Aspects of Metabolic Disease

- Oral Aspects of disturbances in mineral metabolism: Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Zinc, Fluorine, Iron
- Oral aspects of Avitaminoses and Hypervitaminoses: Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin C, Vitamin B complex.
- Oral aspects of Disturbances in Hormone Metabolism: Hypopituitaris, Hyperpituitarism, Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism, Hypoparathyroidism, Hyperparathyroidism, Addison's disease, Cushing's Syndrome, Diabetes Mellitus.
(5 hrs)
18) Diseases of Nerves

- Trigeminal Neuralgia, Sphenopalatine neuralgia, Frey's syndrome, Burning mouth syndrome.

(2 hrs)

ORAL MICROBIOLOGY  
1) Normal oral microbial flora  
2) Microbiology of Dental caries

- Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Actinomyces israelli, Veillonella
 
3) Microbiology of Periodontal disease

- Borrelia vincentii, Fusobacteria, Actinomycetes actinomycetum-comitans
 
4) Microbiology of Oral infections

- Bacteria of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Treponema Palladium
- Viruses: Herpes group of viruses, Human Immunodeficiency virus
- Fungi: Candida albicans
 
Practicals: 80 hours  
a) Identification of Hard and Soft Tissue Specimens

b) Demonstration of Cytosmear and Bacteriology smear

c) Identification of microscopic slides of various oral lesions
 
h) Occlusal contact and intercusp relations of all the teeth during
the various functional mandibular movements.
 
Identification of the histopathologic slides of the following lesions:  
1. Pit and fissure caries  
2. Smooth surface caries
3. Dental caries –liquefaction foci
4. Pulp polyp
5. Periapical granuloma
6. Dentigerous cyst
7. Radicular cyst
8. Cholesterol clefts/cholesterol crystals
9. Rushton bodies
10. Calcifying Odontogenic cyst
11. Mucocele
12. Leukoplakia
13. Carcinoma-in-situ
14. Oral submucous fibrosis
15. Fordyce's spots
16. Papilloma
17. Fibroma
18. Lipoma
19. Capillary hemangioma
20. Cavernous hemangioma
21. Lymphangioma
22. Schwannoma
23. Well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma
24. Moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma
25. Verrucous carcinoma
26. Malignant melanoma
27. Osteosarcoma
28. Pyogenic granuloma
29. Fibrous dysplasia
30. Ossifying fibroma
31. Paget's disease
32. Osteomyelitis (acute)
33. Osteomyelitis (chronic)
34. Peripheral giant cell granuloma
35. Central giant cell granuloma
36. Ameloblastoma (follicular)
37. Ameloblastoma (plexiform)
38. Ameloblastoma (granular cell variant)
39. Adenomatoid Odontogenic tumor
40. Cementoblastoma
41. Ameloblastic fibroma
42. Compound odontome
43. Pleomorphic adenoma, preferably with metaplastic areas
44. Warthin's tumor
45. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (high grade)
46. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (low grade)
47. Adenoid cystic carcinoma
48. Necrotizing sialometaplasia
49. Lichen planus with civatte bodies
50. Pemphigus
51. Tuberculosis
52. Actinomycosis
53. Candidiasis
  ADDITIONAL TOPICS:

1. Ultrastructural features, Immunofluorescence techniques for muco-cutaneous lesions and viral infections
2. Basics of immunology
3. Different type of microscopy used in the diagnosis of oral lesions
4. Syndromes
 
 


ORAL PATHOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY


Practical : 250 Hours
MDS
Objectives:

To train a post graduate dental surgeon so as to ensure higher competence in both general and special pathology dealing with the nature of oral diseases, their causes, processes and effects.

An oral pathologist is expected to perform routine histopathological evaluation of specimens relating to oral and perioral tissues, to carry out routine diagnostic procedures including hematological, cytological, microbiological, Immunological and ultra structural investigations.

He/she is expected to have an understanding of current research methodology, collection and interpretation of data, ability to carry out research projects on clinical and or epidemiological aspects, a working knowledge on current databases, automated data retrieval systems, referencing and skill in writing scientific papers.

He/she is expected to present scientific data pertaining to the field, in conferences both as poster and verbal presentations and ot take part in group discussions.
 
1) Broad outline of theoretical, clinical and practical courses.

1. Study of principles of routine and special techniques used for histopathology including principles of histochemistry, Immunochemistry, applied and theoretical biochemical basis of histochemistry as related to oral pathology.

2. Advanced histological and histopathological study of dental and oral tissues including embryonic considerations, clinical considerations, biology, histology, Pathology, prognosis and management of oral oncology, Concepts of oral premalignancy

3. Study of special and applied pathology of oral tissues as well as relation of local pathologic and clinical findings to systemic conditions.

4. Oral microbiology and their relationship to various branches of dentistry.

5. Oral microbiology affecting hard and soft tissues. Study of clinical changes and their significance to dental and oral diseases as related to oral pathology

6. Forensic odontology

7. Inter institutional postings such as cancer hospital, dermatology clinics, regional HIV detection centers, 'sophisticated instrumentation centers for electron microscopy and other techniques.

8. Maintenance of records of all postgraduates activities.

9. Library assignment.

10. University Dissertation.

 

 
I MDS
1) Biostatistics and Research Methodology

Basic principles of biostatistics and study as applied to dentistry and research

Collection/organization of data/measurement scales presentation of data analysis.

Measures of central tendency.

Measures of variability.

Sampling and planning of health survey.

Probability, normal distribution and indicative statistics.

Estimating population values.

Tests of significance (parametric/non-parametric qualitative methods.)

Analysis of variance

Association, correlation and regression.

 
  Approach:

- Didactic lectures on biostatistics and discussion on research methodology by eminent researchers.

- Two - day P.G. orientation course including general approach PG course, library and main dissertation, journal club topic selection and presentation, seminars, clinico-pathological meets, teaching methodology and use of audiovisual aids.
 
2) Applied Gross Anatomy of Head and Neck including Histology:

- Temporomandibularjoint

- Trigeminal nerve and facial nerve

- Muscles of mastication

- Tongue

- Salivary glands

- Nerve supply; blood supply, lymphatic drainage and venous drainage of Orodental tissues.

- Embryology

1) Development of face, palate, mandible, maxilla, tongue and applied aspects of the same
2) Development of teeth and dental tissues and developmental defects of oral and maxillofacial region and abnormalities of teeth

- Maxillary sinus

- Jaw muscles and facial muscles
 
  Genetics:
Introduction modes of inheritance, chromosomal anomalies of oral tissues and single genetic disorders.
 
Approach:
- Posting in department of anatomy for dissection of head, face and neck.
 
3) Physiology (General and oral)

- Saliva

- Pain

- Mastication

- Taste

- Deglutition

- Wound healing

- Vitamins (Influence on growth, development and structure of oral soft and hard tissues and paraoral tissues.)

- Calcium metabolism.

- Theories of mineralization.

- Tooth eruption and shedding.

- Hormones. (Influence on growth, development and structure of oral soft and hard tissues and para oral tissues.)

- Blood and its constituents.

 
4) Cell Biology:

- Cell-structure and function (ultrastructural and molecular aspects), intercellular junctions, cell cycle and division, cell cycle regulators, cell - cell and cell - extra cellular matrix interactions.

- Detailed molecular aspects of DNA, RNA, and intracellular organelles, transcription and translation and molecular biology techniques.

 
5) General Histology:

Light and electron microscopy considerations of Epithelial tissues and glands, bone, hematopoietic system, lymphatic system, muscle, neural tissue, endocrinal system (thyroid, pituitary, parathyroid)

Approach:
  • Postings in the department of anatomy and histology for slide discussion
  • Record book to be maintained.

 
6) Biochemistry:

- Chemistry of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins.
- Methods of identification and purification.
- Metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins.
- Biological oxidation.
- Various techniques - cell fractionation and ultra filtration, centrifugation, Electrophor Spectrophotometry, and radioactive techniques.

Approach:

- Postings to the department of biochemistry to familiarize with various techniques
- Record book to be maintained.
 
7) General Pathology:

Inflammation and chemical mediators, thrombosis, embolism, necrosis, repair, degeneration, shock, hemorrhage pathogenic mechanisms at molecular level and blood dyscrasias, Carcinogenesis and Neoplasia.
 
8)

General Microbiology:

  • ©

Definitions of various types of infections.

  • ©

Routes of infection and spread

  • ©

Sterilization, disinfection and antiseptics.

  • ©

Bacterial genetics.

  • ©

Physiology and growth of microorganisms.



Approach:

- Record book to be maintained.
 
9)

Basic Immunology.

  • »

Basic principles of immunity, antigen and antibody reactions.

  • »

Cell mediated immunity and Humoral immunity.
  • »

Immunology of hypersensitivity.
  • »

Immunological basis of the autoimmune phenomena.
  • »

Immunodeficiency with relevance to opportunistic infections.

»

Basic principles of transplantation and tumor immunity.
 
10) Systemic microbiology/applied microbiology
Morphology, classification, pathogenicity, mode of transmission, methods of pre collection and transport of specimen, for laboratory diagnosis, staining methods, comi culture media, interpretation of laboratory reports and antibiotic sensitivity tests.

- Staphylococci
- Streptococci
- Corynebacterium diphtheria
- Mycobacteria
- Clostridia, bacteroides and fusobacteria © Actinomycetales
- Spirochetes

Virology:

General properties: structure, broad classification of viruses, pathogenesis, pathology of viral infections.

Herpes virus: list of viruses included, lesions produced, pathogenesis, latency principles and laboratory diagnosis.

Hepatitis virus: list of viruses, pathogenesis, and mode of infection, list of diagnostic tests, and their interpretations, methods of prevention and control.

Human Immunodeficiency virus: structure with relevance to laboratory diagnosis, type of infection, laboratory tests and their interpretation, universal precautions, specific precautions and recent trends in diagnosis and prophylaxis.

Mycology:

- General properties of fungi, classification bases on disease, superficial, subcutaneous, deep opportunistic infections.

- General principles of fungal infections, diagnosis rapid diagnosis method of collection of sample and examination for fungi.

Approach:

Postings to the dept. of microbiology to familiarize with relevant diagnostic methods Record book to be maintained
 
11) Oral Biology (oral and dental histology)

- Structure and function of oral, dental and paraoral tissues including their ultra structure, molecular and biochemical aspects.

- Study of morphology of permanent and deciduous teeth (Lectures and practical demonstrations to be given by PG students)

Approach:

- Slide discussion on histological appearance of normal oral tissues.

- Record book to be maintained.
 
12) Basic molecular biology and techniques:
experimental aspects - DNA extraction, PCR, western blotting.

Approach:

- Postings in centers where facilities are available for demonstration of routine molecular biology techniques.

- Record book to be maintained.
 
13)

Basic histo techniques and microscopy:

- Routine hematological tests and clinical significance of the same.

- Biopsy procedures for oral lesions.

- Processing of tissues for Paraffin lesions.

- Microtome and principles of microtomy.

- Routine stains, principles and theories of staining techniques

- Microscope, principles and theories of microscopy.

- Light microscopy and various other types including electron microscopy.

- Methods of tissue preparation for ground sections, decalcified sections.

Approach:

Preparation of ground and decalcified sections, tissue processing, sectioning and staining.

Record book to be maintained

Academic activities:

- Submission of synopsis of dissertation at the end of six months.

- Journal clubs and seminars to be presented by every post graduate student twice a month.

- To attend interdepartmental meetings.

- To attend dental camps based on the survey to be done.

-Part -1 year ending examination to be conducted by the college.

 
9) Morphology of permanent teeth.
Chronology, measurements, description of individual
surface and variations of each tooth.
 
 
10) Morphological differences between incisors, premolars and
molars of same arch.
 
 
11) Morphological differences between maxillary and mandibular.
incisors, canines, premolars and molars of the opposite arch.
 
 
12) Internal Anatomy of Pulp.  
 
13) Occlusion:

 

a) Development of occlusion.  
b) Dental arch form.  
c) Compensating curves of dental arches.  
d) Angulations of individual teeth in relation to various planes.  
e) Functional form of the teeth at their incisal and occlusal thirds.  
f) Facial relations of each tooth in one arch to its antagonist or antagonists in
the opposing arch in centric occlusion.
 
g) Occlusal contact and interscusp relations of all the teeth of one
arch with those in the opposing arch in centric occlusion.
 
h) Occlusal contact and intercusp relations of all the teeth during
the various functional mandibular movements.
 
i) Neurobehavioural aspect of occlusion.  
 
14) Tempero Mandibular Joint (T.M.J.):
- Gross Anatomy and articulation.
- Muscles (Muscles of mastication).
- Mandibular position and movements.
- Histology.
- Clinical considerations with special emphasis on Myofacial Pain
Dysfunction Syndrome (MPDS) - (Desirable to Know)
 
 
II. ORAL PHYSIOLOGY:  
1) Theories of calcification.
 
 
2) Mastication and deglutition.
 
 
III. ORAL EMBRYOLOGY, ANATOMY and HISTOLOGY
 
1) Development and growth of face and jaws.
 
 
2) Development of tooth.
 
 
3) Cranial nerves with more emphasis on V.VII and IX.
 
 
4) Blood supply, nerve supply and lymphatic drainage of teeth
and surrounding structures.
 
 
5) Cell - structure and function.
 
 
6) Maxillary sinus
- Structure, Variations, Histology
function and clinical considerations.
 
 
7) Salivary Glands
- Classification, structure, function,
Histology, Clinical Considerations and age changes.
 
 
8) Oral Mucous membrane:
- Definitions, General consideration.
- Functions and classifications.
- Structure and microscopic appearance of gingiva, palate,
lips, alveolar mucosa, tongue, floor of mouth.
- Gingival sulcus and dento gingival junction.
- Clinical considerations and age changes.
 
 
  ENAMEL:
- Physical characteristics, chemical properties structure.
- Development - Life cycle of ameloblasts Amelogenesis
and Mineralisation.
- Clinical considerations.
- Age changes.
 
 
  DENTIN:
- Physical characteristics, chemical properties, structure.
- Types of dentin.
- Dentin innervation and hypersensitivity.
- Development - Dentinogenesis and mineralisation.
- Clinical considerations.
- Age Changes.
 
 
  PULP: Anatomy, structural features, functions, pulp organs.
- Developments.
- Clinical consideration
- Age changes.
 
 
  CEMENIUM:
- Physical characteristics, chemical properties, structure.
- Cementogenesis.
- Clinical consideration
- Age changes.
 
 
  PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT:
-Cells and fibers
- Functions
- Development
- Clinical Considerations.
- Age Changes
 
 
  ALVEOLAR BONE:
- Physical characteristics, chemical properties structure.
- Structure
- Development.
- Internal reconstruction.
- Clinical consideration.
 
 
  HISTOCHEMISTRY OF ORAL TISSUES. (Tissue processing)
 
 
  THEORIES OF ERUPTION AND SHEDDING. (Physiological tooth movement)
 
 
II MDS
 
        Oral pathology

        • Developmental defects of oral and maxillofacial region and abnormalities of teeth

        • Dental caries (Introduction, Epidemiology, microbiology, cariogenic bacterial including properties, acid production in plaque, development of lesion, response of dentine - pulp unit, histopathology, root caries, sequelae and immunology).

        • Pulpal and Periapical diseases

        • Infections of oral and Para oral regions (bacterial, viral and fungal infection

        • Non - neoplastic disorders of salivary glands

        • Bone pathology

        • Hematological disorders

        • Physical and chemical injuries, allergic and Immunological diseases.

        • Cysts of odontogenic origin

        • Dermatologic diseases.

        • Periodontal diseases

        • Oral manifestations of systemic diseases

        • Facial pain and neuromuscular disorders including TMJ disorders

        • Regressive alterations of teeth

 
 

Clinical Pathology:

  • Laboratory investigations - Hematology, Microbiology and Urine analysis

  • Postings to Clinical Pathology fop relevant training

  • Record book to be maintained.

 
 

Specialized histotechniques and special stains:

Special staining techniques for different tissues.

Immunohistochemistry

Preparation of frozen sections and cy to logical smears

Approach:
Training to be imparted in the department or in other institutions having the facility Record book to be maintained

Recording of Case history and Clinico-pathological discussions:

Approach:
Posting to the department of Oral medicine, Diagnosis and Radiology and Oral and Maxillofacial surgery

Record of case histories to be maintained Dermatology

Study of selected mucocutaneous lesions-etiopathogenesis, pathology, clinical presentation and diagnosis.

Approach:
Posting to the dept of Dermatology of a Medical college

  • Topics to be covered as Seminars

  • Record of cases seen to be maintained.

 
 

Oral oncology

Detailed study including Pathogenesis, molecular and biochemical changes of tumor like lesions and Premalignant lesions affecting the hard and soft tissues of oral and paraoral tissues

Tumour markers

Approach:
To be covered as seminars

Posting to a Cancer center to familiarise with the pathological appearances, diagnosis, radio-diagnosis and treatment modalities.

 
 

Oral Microbiology and immunology

  • Normal Oral microbial flora

  • Defense mechanism of the oral cavity

  • Microbiology and immunology of Dental caries and Periodontal diseases © Dental caries (Introduction, epidemiology, microbiology, cariogenic bacteria including properties, acid production in plaque, development of lesion, response of dentin-pulp unit, histopathology, root caries, sequelae and immunology)

  • Tumor immunology

  • Infections of Pulp and Periapical and periodontal tissues

  • Oral sepsis and Bacterimia

  • Microbial genetics

  • Infections of oral and Para oral regions (bacterial, viral and fungal infections)


Approach:
To be covered as seminars

 
 

Forensic Odontology:

Legal procedures like inquest, medico-legal evidences post mortem examination of violence around mouth and neck, identification of deceased individual-dental importance.

Bite marks rugae patterns and lip prints.

Approach:
To be covered as seminars

Posting to a Cancer center to familiarize with the pathological appearances, diagnosis, and

radio-diagnosis and treatment modalities

 
 

Histopathology - slide discussion

Record book to be maintained

 
 

Laboratory techniques and Diagnosis

  • Routine hematological tests and clinical significance of the same

  • Microtome and principles of microtomy

  • Routine stains, principles and theories of staining techniques

  • Microscope, principles and theories of microscopy

  • Light microscopy and various other types including electron microscopy

  • Methods of tissue preparation for ground sections, decalcified sections.

  • Special sfains and staining techniques for different tissues

  • Immunohistochemistry

  • Preparation of frozen sections and cytological smears

 
 

Other Topics in Oral Pathology.

  • Detailed description of diseases affecting oral mucosa, teeth, supporting tissues & jaws

  • Cysts of the oral & Para-oral regions

  • Systemic diseases affecting oral cavity.

Approach:
Seminars & Slide discussions. Record notebook to be maintained. Training in histo-pathology slide reporting.

 
 

Experimental aspects of Oral diseases

Approach:
Posting is desirable in Centers where animal experimentation is carried out to familiarize with laboratory technique's, upkeep & care of experimental animals.

 
 

Recent advances in Oral Pathology.

Approach:
Update of knowledge in Oral Pathology through study of recent journals & Internet browsing. Journal Clubs & Group discussions

 
 

Academic activities

  • Library assignment to be submitted at the end of 6 months © Commencement of dissertation work

  • Journal clubs and seminars to be presented by every PG student © Clinico - pathological discussions once in a month by every PG student © To attend interdepartmental meetings.

  • Lecture and practical classes and slide discussions to be taken for II BDS

  • Students in oral and dental anatomy, dental histology and oral physiology. © Year ending examination (theory and practical) to be conducted by the college.


 
III MDS
 
  • Non-neoplastic disorders of salivary glands.

  • Bone pathology

  • Physical and chemical injuries, allergic and Immunological diseases.

  • Cysts of odontogenic origin

  • Oral manifestations of systemic diseases

Approach:
To be covered as seminars Slide discussions of the same Record book to be maintained

 
 

Academic activities

  • Visit to center out Animal experimentation to familiarize with Laboratory techniques, upkeep and care of animals

  • Completion of Dissertation work and submission of the same, six months before the Final Examination

  • Study of Journals, Internet Browsing, and group discussions, to update knowledge in the recent advances in Oral Pathology

  • Lecture and Practical demonstrations for third B.D.S students in Oral pathology and Microbiology

  • Reporting of histopathology slides

  • Journal clubs and Seminars to be presented by every post graduate student twice a month

  • Clinico-pathological discussions by every student once in a month

  • To attend Interdepartmental meetings.

 
 

Monitoring learning Progress

It is essential to monitor the learning progress of each candidate through continuous appraisal and regular assessment. It not only helps teachers to evaluate students, but also students to evaluate themselves. The monitoring be done by the staff of the department based on participation of students in various teaching / learning activities. It may be structured and assessment is done using checklists that assess various aspects. Checklists are given in Section