Tag Archives: Medical College Bangalore

Obesity in Adults – Connect to Childhood

We all know that obesity is the result of high sugar intake as well and particularly artificially sweetened beverages as well as processed foods. Today millions of people across the world are suffering from obesity and its going only northwards. One of the reasons are the hectic and sedentary lifestyle of people.

A recent study based on the sugar consumption of adults in USA was carried out to look for answers around the growing cases of obesity there even when USA saw a decline in consumption of Sugar.

Obesity in Adults – Connect to Childhood

The research involved Alex Bentley, the head of Anthropology department at the Tennessee University of Knoxville and his colleagues. This study took a new approach and did not involve the current diet of the participants but their diet habits before 30-40 years back as in during childhood days. The reason behind doing the same as per the co-author of the study Damian Ruck, a postdoctoral research fellow at the Anthropology Department was that no other earlier research did particularly study around the temporal delay between high sugar consumption and increase in obesity rates.

So, Bentley and his team created a mathematical adult obesity model for obesity rise after 1990’s, a result of increase in consumption of sugar in 1970’s and 1980’s.

For the model testing they made use of data on sugar consumptions from the US Agriculture department and Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) during the period of 1990-2004.

The model used the stochastic process for showing the rise in obesity rates due to high sugar consumptions legion. The model further goes on to explain the delay of so many years from consumption to obesity rise.

It also made important observations around high increase in fructose corn syrup and mainly the rise before 2000 was a result of use of artificial sweeteners in processed foods as well as soft drinks. The study also highlighted that poverty was one of the main reasons behind high sugar consumption as it is an inexpensive source of calories. Also, sweetened beverages are an integral part of low income households in US due to that reason.

The team finally concluded that after the Special Supplemental Nutrition program for Women, Infants and Children was introduced in 2009, there was a drop in the obesity rates and if the model is accurate, the effect will been seen through the adulthood of the children.

*Sourced from Internet

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Stress Eating – An Overview

It’s a known fact that many of you when stressed tend to eat a lot and the food that is usually consumed is fried sweet or buttery, viz. comfort food. So, why do people tend to eat comfort food when they are in their blues, like for example there is a breakup. The reason is there is a connection between emotions and eating rich food. Many of us would agree of having a whole bowl of ice-cream or a bar of chocolate after a bitter breakup just to soothe ourselves or calm ourselves down.

Stress Eating

When we are stressed, the release of hormones from the body does affect our behavior as well as food choices. The short period of stress like before an exam or a public performance the adrenaline levels go high because the adrenal glands release it thus killing our appetite. The adrenal gland is positioned just above the kidney and is responsible for stimulating hunger. Now when the stress levels are spread over a longer period of time like board examinations lasting for a month or so, the same gland releases cortisol, a hunger and craving stimulating hormone. That is why this hormone by itself is called the stress hormone.

Researchers also believe that Ghrelin, another stress hormone has role to play when it comes to stress eating. And when it comes to food, under stress rarely people want to have healthy food. It’s either high fat or high sugar or both together. Though even as the research is on to find out the reason behind the same, researchers believe that the sugar and fat rich foods send signals to the brain thus leading to a drop in emotional and stress burden. No wonder, these foods are called comfort foods.

Well, so if you are one those who fit under the category of binge eating when under stress a little control could help may be…

*Sourced from Internet

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Exercise Coupled With Less Calorie Intake Effects Bone Fragility

A recent research on mice has revealed that if exercise is coupled with reduction in calorie intake it tends to make the bones more small, weak and fragile. Researchers also that that if exercise was teamed with adequate calorie diet then it could help in improving bone health in contrast.

The study published in Journal of bone and Mineral research paper. As per Dr Maya Styner, Associate professor of University of north Caroline at Chapel Hill, it came as a surprise to them because the earlier studies carried out on mice revealed that exercise couple with normal or high calorie diet did help improve bone health. So, the report only helps them know that a low calorie diet is not good for bone health if couple with exercise.

Couple jogging outdoors in nature

Dr Styner also alerted that reduced calorie intake can increase the risk of fracture as well as it negatively affects the bone strength. The study was concentrated upon bone marrow fat. Though still the scientists are not been able to understand how fat works, but they do think that it does affect health in mammals and humans.

Earlier studies as per Dr Styner had revealed that bone marrow fat and bone health were related to each other in a way that when the high calorie intake lead to obesity and further increased the levels of bone marrow fat. Also, when obese as well as mice with normal weight exercised, it lead to a increase in bone density due to the decrease in bone marrow fat.

The objective of the study was to find out how a decrease in calorie intake can affect he bone marrow fat as well as bone health. The research involved two groups of mice. One of the group was fed 30% less calories as compared to the other group. The other group was offered regular calorie diet.

The mice that were on restricted calories also received mineral and vitamin supplements in order to keep the nutrient intake at par with the other normal calorie intake ones. The groups were further split in 6 groups, the sedentary ones and the exercising ones. The results showed that the mice that were kept on a calorie restricted diet seem to not only lost weight but also showed a reduction in bone density and increase in bone marrow fat as well.

The researchers were surprised to see that bones became fragile due to restriction of calories. Though the investigations are not complete yet and further research needs to be done in order to understand the bone marrow functioning, the team did find that reduction in calories lead decrease in bone marrow fat at the same time affecting the quantity and quality of bone.

*Sourced from Internet

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All You Need To Know About Hair Loss

Also known as Alopecia, hair loss obviously affects the scalp, is what we are already aware of. What many of us aren’t aware of is that it also affects the entire body. Let us find out how. We have hair across the body and this condition leads to excessive loss of hair not only from the scalp but also from the entire body.

It is known that around 5% people suffer from alopecia while the rest do get a new growth once their hair fall off. Hair loss is also a result of many other health conditions like for example cancer. Hair-loss is a daily process and a human loses 80-100 strands of the 10-15 lakh strands of hair on their head. Though it is a natural process if it’s excessive, you need to look into it.

Here’s a run-down the causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment around hair loss condition

Know About Hair Loss

Causes – Though all of us experience hair loss and it’s an everyday affair and it is upto 100 strands of hair on a daily basis. There are a lot of factors that affect hair loss like genetic reasons, due to use of certain medications like blood pressure, depression and more. Besides, even hormonal changes like during child birth, menopause or thyroid can also cause hair loss, eating a diet that is deficient of proteins as well as Vitamin B and fungal or ringworm infection on Scalp can also cause Hair loss.

Symptoms – Symptoms of hair loss include lumps of hair falling suddenly during washing or combing. Swelling on the scalp, hair thinning and breakage and baldness in circular motion, itching and loss of hair from the eyebrows or beard.

Diagnosis – The diagnosis is based on physical examination and if required some tests would also be done. The additional tests include Scalp biopsy, light microcopy, blood test or pull test, in-case the doctor suspects some other condition or physical examination is not conclusive.

Treatment – There are a lot of treatments available for hair loss issues and depending upon the diagnosis the doctor suggests them. These include Immunotherapy, Steriod injections, lazer and UV light treatment or hair transplantation.

Well, hair-loss is a common condition and can be prevented also by taking care of your hair and providing them with the necessary nutrients on a regular basis.

*Sourced from Internet

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Nicotene Cigarettes And Its Affects On Blood Vessels

E-cigarettes are a common with people who are working towards quitting smoking. The latest report from the Centre of Disease Control and prevention (CDC), over 10% of US smokers have tried using e-cigarettes atleast once and around 4% already use it on a daily basis. The promoters of e-cigarettes claim it to be a healthy alternative to the more harmful tobacco cigarettes.

Though the long term effect of e-cigarettes can only be determined after research. There have been many studies already questioning the safety around using e-cigarettes and the effects of vaping nicotine free e-cigarettes.

A new research that investigates into this topic has been published in the Radiology Journal. The study was carried out at the Structural, Physiologic as well as Functional Laboratory imaging University of Pennsylvania of Philadelphia by a post-doctoral researcher called Alessandra Caporale.

Nicotene Cigarettes And Its Affects On Blood Vessels

THE STUDY

The study involved around 31 healthy non-smoking adults in the age group of 24 years. An MRI was undertaken before and after them using nicotine free e-cigarettes. The participants had to take 16 puffs in total with each lasting for 3 seconds.

The e-cigarette content was free from nicotine but included glycerol and propylene glycol with a tobacco flavor. The researchers measured ‘reactive hyperemia’ or a short rise in the arterial blood flow post occlusion, of their subjects after they constricted and released their blood vessels.

The MRI scans did show that there was a reduction in the femoral artery’s blood flow. Femoral is the main artery responsible for delivering blood to the thigh and leg area of the body. Another note that the team made was about reduction in reactive hyperemia as well.

Based on the study, the researchers concluded that smoking nicotine free e-cigarette aerosol does affect the endothelial function in healthy smokers transiently. Endothelial is the thin cell layer that lines the inner side of blood vessels. If the endothelium is damaged, it will lead to thickening of the arteries and thus poor blood circulation. This could further lead to life threatening conditions like stroke or heart attack.

FINDINGS

The final results showed that there was a decrease in dilation in the femoral artery by 34%. Post vaping while the venous oxygen levels dropped by 20%, the blood flow by 17.5% and the reactive hyperemia by almost 26%. The results as per the main investigator and professor of radiologic science as well as biophysics Dr Felix W Wehrli mean that the liquid of the e-cigarettes was to some extent harmless but the process of vaporization had the ability to transform the primary molecules namely glycerol and propylene glycol into toxic substances. The Vaping also has an instant and sudden effect on the vascular function of the body and could have harmful effects on a long run.

So, if you use e-cigarettes, be warned that they aren’t really a safe alternative as per the results of the study and that if you are planning to start, do not.

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*Sourced from the Internet

5 Best Mental Health Apps

With the growing number of mobile phones across the world and also in India and ever increasing use of applications, it’s no wonder if you find an app to resolve any of you problems related to house management, health management, diet management and more. Today with the hectic work schedules and high stress levels associated with work, mental health issues are also increasing day by day. In India, mental health still remains a stigma due to lack of awareness around the same. Even though people actually coming forward to take help around mental health is only over 10% as against more than 200 million suffering from depression and other mental health issues, today in urban areas people are opening up and seeking help.

So, if you are also an avid gadget freak and are looking towards getting an app that could help you reduce mental stress and feel better as far as mental health is concerned. Here’s run down some of the mental health apps that could help you with stress management.

5 Best Mental Health Apps

  1. Mood Path – A petite app, you can call it on the go mental health counsellor because the app is designed with the objective of the app is to provide support and guidance through your mental health conditions. The app works by asking you questions around your mental health on a daily basis to screen for symptoms of depression so that you are aware about it. It also provides you documented details around mental health which you could share with your mental health professional besides providing access to over 100 videos and psychological exercises to help deal with your mental health and strengthen it.

  1. Headspace – The objective of this app is to help you be happy and healthy. It helps you be at your best daily using meditation and mindfulness to achieve it. It comes loaded with hundreds of sessions to help you get rid of stress, keep yourself calm and your mind fit. Headspace also reports that meditation on a daily basis can help you decrease stress and help you with focusing and attention issues.

  1. Calm – This app is available for free with apple iphone and is also rewards as the app of the year for 2017. It focuses on four main areas namely relaxation, sleep, meditation and breathing and its objective is to bring peace, joy and clarity in thinking as far as daily life goes. It’s known to hit the bull’s eye for people who want to start meditation for the first time. It comes loaded with meditation session varying from as short as 3 minutes to 25 minutes duration so that you can pick whatever is convenient to you.

  1. Super Better – This app has a proven expertise of reduction in Stress levels. A study carried out by the university of Philadelphia has found that people who have played super-better for a month have been able to reduce their depression and anxiety levels, believe in themselves and better their mood as well. It seems to be very effective when it comes to cope with chronic conditions, deal with anxiety and depression, deal with relationships, adopt new habits and achieve the desirable goals. The best part, this app is absolutely free for android and iphone devices.

  1. Happify - Another free for apple and android users, this app has reviews from over 85% of its users feeling better after they used it for over 2 months. The objective of the application is to help one form healthy habits through positive psychology and mindfulness. The app helps break away with habits that are unhealthy for the mind using techniques and interventions that are based on evidence. It is loaded with games and activities that help fight negativity and improve your emotional well-being.

Well, there are many more that are your best on the go companions or mental health management assistants helping you help yourself with staying at peace with yourself.

*Sourced from the Internet

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Fda Approves Drug That Keeps Prostate Cancer At Bay For Long Time

Prostate cancer is one of the cancers that is common across the world. As per the statistics, it is known to be the second most common cancer in US and UK and sixth common cause of cancer deaths in the world. As far as India is concerned, the rates earlier were quite lower compared to other countries. But, the recent data shows a rise in cancer in India and mostly in urban areas particularly since the time.

prostate cancer

Now, males hormones are such that they only aid in worsening the symptoms and aiding its spread. Nubeqa or darolutamide is the new drug that is effective in controlling the cancer spread. It has the ability to increase the life expectancy rates by more than double.

As per the trial investigator and medical direction Neal Shore of Carolina Urologic Research Centre Prostate cancer particularly that’s spread across the other body parts is highly sensitive to the spread fast under the influence of male hormones like testosterone and testosterone metabolites.

Shore added the initial trials of the drug were a success as the tolerance was quite good events unique to ARIs that were observed in the earlier trials are not observed with darolutamide. Only that certain side effects like Nubeqa, rash and fatigue

He also added that the FDA approved the med only after it cleared the Phase III ARAMIS trial with positive results showing a rise in metastasis-free survival (MFS). Published in the New England Journal of Medicine earlier this year, had carried out the trial that involved 1509 participants who were provided with 600 mg of oral drug two times a day or a placebo alongside ADT. The randomized trial was multi-center, double blinded and placebo controlled on men with nmCRPC and under the treatment of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with higher chances of turning out to be metastatic.

Robert LaCAze, executive member of pharmaceuticals division as well as strategic business head at Bayer stated that Nubeqa approval had opened gates to a new therapy that aids in extending MFS besides allowing physicians more flexibility in treating men having nmCRPC.

As per Matthew Smith, MD, PhD, director at the Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Centre in Boston for Genitourinary malignancies program, The approval of Nubeqa has opened the gates for a new option in prostate cancer treatment. He added that the objective of the treatment was to curb the spread of the cancer besides controlling therapy side effects as Patients usually do not exhibit any typical symptoms of MFS.

*Sourced from the Internet

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Stomach Cancer – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis And Treatment

Stomach cancer is one of the most common cancers in India particularly in north eastern parts of India. Hospital based data from Mizoram shows around 30 percent of the admitted cancer patients suffering from gastric cancers.

Alike other cancers symptoms of stomach cancer are not apparent in the beginning and are similar to symptoms like common health conditions like flu and more. The symptoms for stomach cancer include –

Stomach Cancer

  1. Unexplained Weight loss

  2. Abdominal Pain

  3. Nausea and vomiting

  4. Discomfort in the area above the belly button

  5. Bloating post small meals

  6. Indigestion and heartburn

  7. Anemia

  8. Blood in stool

As you can see, the aforementioned symptoms aren’t really a reliable indication for cancer. A stomach virus or ulcer could also have these symptoms. The indicative symptoms only occur once the cancer is at advanced stage.

Risk Factors

Risk factors for stomach cancer include genetic history of cancer and smoking as well. Helicabacter Pulori (H pylori) bacterium infection is also one of the major causes of stomach cancer. Having said that, though many people who do have the germ inside them do not get cancer.

Treatment

Treatment is based on the diagnosis and could involve surgery, chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Usually, the treatment involves either curing the condition if it is in the early stages or controlling or relieving the symptoms. If the objective is cure then the treatment also concentrates on relieving the side effects. If the objective is to keep the cancer under control, the treatment involves relieving symptoms that affect the quality of life like eating problems, pain and bleeding. A second opinion is always advisable when it is about cancer.

Prevention

Though cancer is not preventable as such but what you can do is only manage the risk factors through a balanced diet rich in fibres and cirtrus fruits, exercise and physical activity.

*Sourced from the Internet

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All You Need To Know About Asthma

Asthma is one of the common conditions and as per statistics it is ranked in the top 20 conditions causing disability across the world. The alarming part is that one in every 10 asthma patients in the world is from India. Bronchial asthma is one of the most chronic forms of asthma and the symptoms vary from person to person.

Asthma can go from being just a minor respiratory issue to a condition that could affect your quality of life depending upon its severity. If you see your symptoms worsen with time, that’s the sign.

asthma

Asthma Symptoms

  • Breathing issues and shortness of breath

  • A whistling sound while breathing out

  • Pain in the chest or tightness

  • Attacks of wheezing and cough during a viral respiratory infection like cold or flu

Asthma Triggers

There are certain infections and allergies that can trigger and aggravate asthma. They include the following

Allergies – A lot of allergies tend to trigger asthma including dried pet saliva, airborne substances like molds, spores and pollens, waste particles to name a few.

Occupational – It usually occurs at the workplace due to triggers like dust, gases and chemical fumes

Exercising – It usually occurs during exercising or rigorous physical activity and worsens as the air gets cold and dry

GERD – Asthma is also caused in people with Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

Food Preservatives – Some preservatives and sulphites in foods as well as beverages can also trigger asthma

If proper treatment is provided then it works really well with asthma and prevent further aggravation of the same. Though prevention of asthma is not a possibility, you can definitely work towards avoiding asthma attacks through proper care of yourself. This includes

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Biopsy – All You Need To Know About Biopsy

For a variety of cancers the only way to provide a definite diagnosis about a condition is to carry out biopsy. The procedure involves the removal of a sample of cells or a tissue from the body for a closer examination.

Biopsy - Types of Biopsy

Types of Biopsy

Needle Biopsy – This type of biopsy is used mostly for diagnosis of cancers that can be felt through the skin. These include enlarged lymph nodes as well as breast nodes

  • Fine needle aspiration A needle and a syringe is used to get a sample from either breast lump or thyroid.

  • Vacuum assisted biopsy – There’s a suction device is used to extract more amount of fluid at a time so that the needle does not have to be inserted many times.

  • Image guided biopsy - Image guided biopsy uses a combination of imaging procedures like computerized tomography (CT), X-ray, sonography or MRI.

  • Core needle biopsy – It uses a needle that is larger with a cutting tip to draw the sample column of tissue.

Endoscopic Biopsy- An endoscope is used for taking tissues from the stomach during endoscopy. An endoscope is a tube with a camera at its end.

Incisional Biopsy – It involves taking a small part of skin

Excisional Biopsy – It involves taking a big part of the tissue/ tumor and requires a

Skin Biopsy – The procedure is carried out in order to check for lesions, rashes, growth, moles and lesions. The doctor takes samples of your skin surface with the help of a razor.

Punch Biopsy – A small instrument is used to punch a hole in the skin in order to get a sample.

Bone Marrow Biopsy – This biopsy involves taking samples of the bone marrow to check for cancerous or non-cancerous cells causing blood problems. A sample of the bone marrow is taken for diagnosis around cancers like lymphoma, leukemia and more.

Yes, biopsy does sound freaky but with the advanced procedures in place, its mostly a low risk as well as pain free procedure. So, if you are to undergo a biopsy procedure soon, do not panic. Stay calm, there’s nothing to worry about it.

*Sourced from the Internet

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