Tag Archives: Best Neurologist in India

Cerebral Palsy – Risk Factors And More

It is not one condition but a group of conditions that affects the balance, posture and movement of an individual. The cause of cerebral palsy is generally associated with brain damage during birth or in the early years. Apparently, doctors haven’t been able to figure out the exact cause of brain damage during CP, but few reasons and risk factors are listed below -

  1. Blood flow issues to important organs of the body

  2. Bleeding in the brain when baby is in the womb

  3. Genetic conditions

  4. Brain injury

  5. Seizures at birth or in the first month after birth

cerebral-palsy

Risk Factors at Pregnancy include

  1. Thyroid gland issues or health issues like seizures

  2. Consumption with toxic substances like mercury that is found in a few fishes

  3. Having RH diseases, meaning blood not compatible with that of the baby

  4. Multiple pregnancies, twins, triplets or more

  5. Infections like German measles, Rubella, Herpes or chicken pox during pregnancy

Risk Factors at child Birth include

  1. Head Position – If the child is not in the head first position but is in the feet first position, risk is involved.

  2. Premature Birth – If the baby is born any time before the completion of 37 weeks

  3. Delivery Complications – If there are complications during the labor and delivery concerning your baby’s circulatory system and breathing.

Risk factors due to Infections in Babies

  1. Severe Jaundice – It is caused due to excessive bilirubin accumulation in blood

  2. Bacterial Meningitis –It leads to swelling of tissues around spinal cord and brain swelling as well

  3. Viral Encephalitis – It also leads to swelling in brain and spinal cord tissues

 

Just know about VIMS

*Sourced from the Internet

All You Need to Know About Open Heart Surgery

Open heart surgery is performed when the coronary arteries supplying blood to the heart are blocked and is the gold standard treatment for the same. The condition arising due to blockage of coronary artery is known as coronary artery disease. Open heart surgery is done to regulate the flow of blood through the arteries and prevent damage to the heart. In the procedure, blood vessels from other parts of the body are used to create a bypass. Generally, two to four coronary arteries are grafted for regulating blood flow to the heart.

There are three types of bypass surgeries depending on the number of bypasses done, namely double bypass, triple bypass, and the quadruple bypass.

Open Heart Surgery – Open heart surgery is considered only if the blockage is such that placing the stent is not feasible. Also, if there is severe coronary disease in the left main artery or in multiple arteries and there is high risk of heart damage. To check the exact blockage scenario cardiac surgeons advice on having a complete testing done. An angiogram is used for checking the severity of coronary disease. The other tests done before and after the surgery include electrocardiogram (EKG), blood tests and specific dietary instructions.

Open Heart Surgery

Types of Open Heart Surgeries

  • On Pump Open heart surgery

During the on pump open heart surgery the surgery is performed under general anesthesia while keeping the patient on ventilator support. The primary step in the surgery is harvesting the blood vessels. Generally, the saphenous vein in the leg is used as it is long enough to create multiple grafts. Alternatively, if it cannot be used then vessels from the arm can be used. After the saphenous vein work is done, the chest is opened by making an incision along the breastbone. The surgeon cuts the sternum to gain access to the heart.

In traditional or off-pump CABG procedure, the heart needs to be stopped using potassium so that the surgeon does not have to perform the surgery on a beating heart. The blood circulation is kept on with the help of a heart-lung machine and the ventilator is switched off. The machine then does the work of the heart as well as the lungs. The surgeon either removes the existing blood vessel and replaces the same to remove the blockage or reroutes the blood around the blockage. There could be one or more grafts to be performed. Once the grafting is completed the heart is restarted. The sternum is placed in its original position and closed with the help of a surgical wire. The surgical wire helps in providing strength to the bone for healing. Lastly, the surgeon closes the incision.

On pump, surgery is recommended for unstable patients. The surgeon performs the surgery on a still heart so the process is quicker and even the bleeding is minimal. Alternatively, the cons include inflammation/ clotting after surgery, transfusion and fluid retention. Though after on-pump surgery the risk of stroke does increase.

  • Off Pump Open heart surgery

The off-pump surgery is very much similar to on-pump except that the blood flow through the body is maintained by the heart only and not the heart-lung machine as in on-pump surgery. The area to be grafted is held with the help of surgical instruments while the heart keeps pumping. This surgery is done on tentatively 20% of the CABG patients undergoing the surgery for the first time.

This surgery is less expensive surgery compared to on pump and it also reduces the risk of stroke. Also, blood loss and transfusions are less compared to on pump. The hospital stay required is also less. 70% of the patients are not recommended to do the surgery due to the condition. The surgery is not recommended for unstable patients.

Recovery
The recovery period includes staying in Intensive care unit for 24 hours. The chest tubes are removed post 48 hours and then the patient is shifted out of ICU. Once the patient is awake the breathing tubes are removed so that the patient can breathe on his/ her own. Though supplemental oxygen may be given through the nose to help with breathing. The patient will be monitored closely and if he/she is unable to breathe, the breathing tube might be inserted again. Once the patient starts breathing on his/her own, swift rehabilitation steps are put into place. This includes sitting up on the edge of the bed, walking while taking care of the wound and preventing pain, etc.

Life Expectancy
The life expectancy has greatly increased over the years up to 98% people undergoing the surgery can easily lead a normal life as that of the others who haven’t undergone any surgery.

” Vydehi Institute of Cardiac Sciences is a well equipped super speciality centre located in Vydehi Hospital designed to serve your hearts needs. It is equipped to treat all cardiac, cardiothoracic and vascular cases.  It uses all the latest equipment and technology coupled with the years of experience in its faculty.”

*Sourced from the Internet

North Eastern State Tops the List of Highest Deaths Due to Hemorrhagic stroke

A study on hemorrhagic stroke carried out in the year 2015 revealed that people residing in the northeastern state topped the list of deaths by hemorrhagic strokes and it exceeds the national average by a staggering three times.

Hemorrhagic stroke

The 2015 study stated that one in three people in the age group of 30-69 years die a premature death due to hemorrhagic stroke. The causes of hemorrhagic stroke are cited as too much consumption of salt and hypertension as well. As per the study that was carried out by the University of Toronto in Canada, the reasons behind this major increase in mortality rates could be inadequate stroke care, high blood pressure and risk factors like endemic infections.

It is an emergency situation that needs immediate medical attention because it causes brain bleeding due to a ruptured blood vessel. The states that are worst affected include Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalaya, and Tripura particularly for deaths in males by strokes. While states like Assam, Odisha, Chhattisgarh and West Bengal were considered to be high risk for strokes in females. In 2015, the death toll rose to a freaking 2.1 million across all ages due to ischemic heart disease and stroke.

Though the rate of cardiac disease is a national issue, stroke has surprisingly surpassed its numbers to become the highest killer in north-eastern population. The study further stated that the deaths could have been prevented, but most of the deaths were caused due to irregular consumption of prescribed medications for cardiac disease.

India is amongst the top 5 countries in the world to have cardiovascular disease deaths and the age at which cardiac diseases develop in Indians is almost half a decade earlier as compared to developed countries. Though the sustainable development department has goals to decrease the mortality rates by 2030 does, it does seem to be difficult at the stage keeping in mind the very little progress made against cardiovascular diseases and awareness around it.

All About Essential Tremors

Many of us have either experienced or seen this happen mostly in elderly people. A nerve disorder, essential tremor causes uncontrollable shaking in various parts of the body. The areas that are commonly known to be affected by the same are arms, larynx, head, hands, chin and tongue. Mostly the affected areas is the upper part and not the lower part of the body. ET or essential tremor is not a life threatening disorder mostly and a person can easily have quality life living with it. Though some might face some difficulty doing routine activities like eating, writing or dressing, but overall one can live with it without much of a discomfort.

All About Essential Tremors

Causes
Tremors are known to be electrical activity of the brain of abnormal nature. Genetics could be a possible cause of ET in over half of the people because a child born to a parent with ET increases the chance of inheriting the same condition by 50%. ET is often seen in the elderly but its definitely cannot referred as a part of aging process.

Symptoms
The symptoms are visible tremors, where the particular affected area shakes uncontrollable, even voice could shake and head could nod as well. With increase in stress the shaking also increasing and decreases with rest. There could be balance problems as well but in rare cases.

Essential tremors are related to other disorders like headaches, migranes, Pariknson’s disease and even known to be a t high risk of getting dementia.

Treatment and Prevention
Treatment is required only in case of essential tremors of severe nature only. The treatment might include surgery or medications as per the severity levels.

Medicines – To reduce severity of essential tremors, medicines like Mysoline, Topamax, and tranquilizers like Ativan, Xanax and more are used. Sometimes Botox injections are used.

Surgery – The surgical alternative is called Deep brain stimulation or DBS and is used only in case of severe tremors even after use of medications.

Well, it is not all preventive because the root cause is not known but with the help of medications it can be kept under control significantly.

The Neurosurgery Department of Vydehi Institute of Medical Science & Research Centre has completed 500 major neurosurgical operations successfully in as many operating days. The Department boasts of state-of-the-art neurosurgical equipments, is now capable of treating all kinds of neurosurgical ailments at an affordable cost.

ADHD – Collection Of Different Disorders?

ADHD or Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder as is it is known is a common disorder in human kind. Well, researchers have some news to share around the same now. As per the researchers, people with this condition are known to have impairments in brain. Further these impairments are unique in nature and hence it is very difficult to have a common explanation for the cause of this condition.

ADHD - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

The findings are based on the research carried out over 117 adolescents having ADHD. They were assessed for impulsive behavior which is known to be one of the most typical behavior in the condition. The study revealed that the participants had shown three different types of characteristics thus leading to creation of three sub categories –
Group 1 – Showed impulsive motor responses during fast moving visual tasks
Group 2 – Showed immediate reward preference
Group 3 – Showed normal behavior for both the tasks compared to 134 non ADHD adolescents

Though the researchers also made it clear that only cognitive testing could help distinguish ADHD patients of different subgroups. They also used the functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) to find out the relation between the impulsive behavior based test profiles and brain dysfunction. But, the results were negative as in the FMRI was not able to record and abnormality other than the core ADHD profile of the brain dysfunction in any of the subgroups because every subgroup showed dysfunction in different regions of the brain depending upon their specific brain impairment.

The results point towards the fact that every brain has different neural systems to manage the executive functions as well as reward processing that are known to contribute individually to the growth of ADHD symptoms.

Well, the study is at a preliminary level and hence as per the researchers it would definitely require detailed study in order to prove that ADHD is a collection of different disorders but this initial study does pave a path to it. The study would also help with effective treatments of people with these conditions because some ADHD medications might not just work well with one subgroup while it might work well with another work group. Hence, targeted treatment would be the approach to be taken because these findings do highlight that more than one factor is definitely responsible for psychiatric disorders like ADHD.

know more about neurosurgery specialist and specialties 

*Source from the internet

Zika Virus and Brain Cancer

One of the most dreaded diseases in India is Cancer and its various varieties. As on day there are a variety of treatments available to treat cancer through surgeries and therapies. But, we are yet to find a treatment that guarantees uprooting cancer from its root and even vaccines to avoid it altogether. Here’s some update on zika virus and its association with brain cancer.

Zika Virus and Brain Cancer

Most of us are aware of the havoc that Zika virus has been creating since its outbreak in the south african countries. But, we are less known of some new updates on the same. Researchers apparently have found out its usage in brain cancer treatment beyond its significant threat to the unborn children.

Though untested in humans yet, the results after testing on lab dishes and animals do reveal that could help treat brain cancer. Its already known that in infants and fetus, the zika targets the brain stem cells which are found in abundance in their brain cells and kills them. This usually increases the chances of neurological issues in new borns infected with zika. But, zika is not able to target adult brains with the same effectiveness. Comparatively, the effect is less severe plus these viruses have the ability to target and kill the lethal glioblastomas, stem cells which are lethal and are not affected by chemotherapy or radiation therapy and trigger the cancer again post treatment.

This research had further created rays of hope in treating brain cancer but requires further studies and tests to be carried out on animals before trying out on humankind. The reason mainly revolves around safety issues related to zika virus. Presently, there are research groups that are also testing other virus like polio, herpes and more in order to target glioblastomas. The use of zika virus as a brain cancer healer aide might require quite some time and a lot of further testing before it hits the cancer hospitals across the world.

Gut Bacteria as an Anti – Aging Agent – An Overview

Gut Bacteria as an Anti - Aging Agent

Gut bacteria in the years to come can help reduce the effects of aging, rather could be of great help in slowing down aging process. This could be possible with the help of supplements derived from gut bacteria. These bacterial genes and compounds can also decrease the rate of tumor progression inside our body besides amyloid beta accumulation, a compound known to be related to Alzheimer’s disease, as per University of Texas Health Science Center.

The scientists and researchers fraternity is well aware that the body interacts with millions of microbes called the microbiomes, inside the body. These microbiomes tend to influence the metabolic and cognitive activities as well as the aging process. Scientists at the Huffington Center are investigating on the possibility of importance of genetic composition of microbiomes for long life.

Experimentation
An experiment was carried out on laboratory work C. elegans as doing it on mammals was quite challenging technically. The characteristics of C. Elegans are very much similar to that of human biology and are simple, transparent organisms with a short life span of upto 3 weeks. This aids in rapid collection of data.

The experiment involved deleting one gene each from the 4000 genes at a time in an e.coli bacteria library to study the effects of each one. The researchers fed each individual mutant bacteria to the C. Elegans and then observed the worm’s life span closely.

As per the researchers, out of 4000 bacterial genes that they tested, they deleted 29 of them and found that it increased the life span of the worms. Furthermore, they also noticed that, 12 of these bacteria restricted tumor growth besides amyloid-beta accumulation. Even purified colanic acid was provided to C. Elegans and showed increased life span in them besides fruit fly and other mammalian cells. They also found that colanic acid regulated the dynamics of cellular structures called mitochondria, responsible for providing energy to the cell.

Well, based on the research that has been carried out and is being carried out, the researchers affirmatively suggest that designing supplements of the bacteria or their compounds could help slow down the aging process.

VIMS – One of the Best Hospital in Bangalore

All You Need To Know About Lipomas

If you have seen some lumpy formations around your body of the size 1 cm – 2 cm then they could be lipomas. Lipoma is a lump formed under the skin from fat deposits. It is generally found in ages 40-60 years and areas may include neck, back or shoulders. They could occur in younger generations as well and on almost any part of the body.

Lipomas are generally slow growing tumors which are generally benign in nature. They might not grow also. As per doctors, they are rarely harmful and there is meager possibility of they turning malignant.

Lipomas

Detection
A lipoma is a fat tissue based tumor and is very soft to touch. Its just under the skin and rarely painful, but it could be. It is colorless, grows slowly and moves easily when you prod it with your finger.

Causes
As of now, there is not defined reason for causing Lipomas. Though, one of the most common reasons is genetic or heriditary factor.

Treatment
Though, a doctor may not suggest any treatment on lipomas as they are painless and non benign.
But, if you are uncomfortable with the lipomas as they might look ugly, then your doctor may remove it with a minor surgery that includes numbing the area around lipoma, creating an incision and removing it. Then stitching the incision. Alternatively Liposuction can be used for removal. Another option is steriod injections in and around the affected area in order to shrink the lipoma can be used. Steriods only help to an extend of shrinking them and not complete elimination.

Home Remedies
Some natural supplements have known to be very effective with fat deposits. This includes turmeric roots, dandelion roots and more. These are those detoxifying herbs that have to be consumed with a lot of water so as to aid in elimination of the toxins. You can even take in turmeric by adding a teaspoon every day in your milk.

There are a few natural oils that might just help in controlling lipomas. This includes tea tree, frankincense, castor oil, sage oil, to name a few. Simple add a half a teaspoon of oil in you regular hair oil and apply it to the affected areas twice a day. Castor oil can also be massaged at night before going to bed on and around the lipomas.

When you use home remedies, their effect is generally slow but steady. So, you need to have a lot of patience to see the results. Use the home remedies atleast for a month and if it does not seem to work then try some other remedy from the suggested ones as per suitability. Its not that natural remedies won’t work. They might just work for you if you keep calm and use them for a long duration of time. There are stories where natural remedies have been affective in treating lipomas. They do not have side effects, so you may as well try them out.

Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Bangalore provides services in healthcare and education. Hospital provides free medical services. College offers Medical, Dental, Nursing and Paramedical courses