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Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences recently established a state-of-the-art Bone Mineral Density Estimating Equipment.

Background: Bone Density (or Bone Mineral Density) refers to the amount of mineral matter per square centimeter of bone. Bone Mineral Density (or BMD) is used in clinical medicine as an indirect indicator of OSTEOPOROSIS and FRACTURE RISK.

Impact of hip fracture in the aged female population:

Bone Mineral Density (BMD) is measured by a procedure called “Densitometry”, often performed in the radiology department in the hospital. The equipment uses two X-Ray energy levels to estimate the absorption coefficient from which is derived the mineral content within the bone examined.

New developments in Dual Energy X-ray Absorptionmetry (DEXA) technology have lead to major improvements in diagnosing osteoporosis, more accurately and also in determining future fracture risk, and in also, diagnosing certain cardiovascular diseases by assessing aortic wall calcifications.

The National Osteoporosis Foundation recommends BMD testing for the following individuals:

• All women aged 65 years and older regardless of risk factors.
• Younger postmenopausal women with one or more risk factors.
• Postmenopausal women who present with fractures (to confirm
the diagnosis and determine disease severity).
• Estrogen deficient women at clinical risk for osteoporosis.
• Individuals with vertebral abnormalities.
• Individuals receiving, or planning to receive, long-term  glucocorticoid (steroid) therapy.
• Individuals with primary hyperparathyroidism.
• Individuals being monitored to assess the response or efficacy of an approved  osteoporosis drug therapy.
• Individuals with a history of eating disorders.

DEXA is used world over in all major Referral Hospitals. It is of immense value in:

• Measuring Bone Mineral Density (BMD);
• Vertebral Fracture Assessment (VFA);
• Hip Structural Analysis;
• 3-D Bone Imaging;
• DXA as a Predictor of Heart Disease and Stroke;
• DXA as a Measure of Body Composition;

In identifying sub-clinical fractures, predicting the possibility of fractures especially in the aged, estimates the mineral content in every bone of the body. Also, estimates the fat content in the body.

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