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ADHD – Collection Of Different Disorders?

ADHD or Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder as is it is known is a common disorder in human kind. Well, researchers have some news to share around the same now. As per the researchers, people with this condition are known to have impairments in brain. Further these impairments are unique in nature and hence it is very difficult to have a common explanation for the cause of this condition.

ADHD - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

The findings are based on the research carried out over 117 adolescents having ADHD. They were assessed for impulsive behavior which is known to be one of the most typical behavior in the condition. The study revealed that the participants had shown three different types of characteristics thus leading to creation of three sub categories –
Group 1 – Showed impulsive motor responses during fast moving visual tasks
Group 2 – Showed immediate reward preference
Group 3 – Showed normal behavior for both the tasks compared to 134 non ADHD adolescents

Though the researchers also made it clear that only cognitive testing could help distinguish ADHD patients of different subgroups. They also used the functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) to find out the relation between the impulsive behavior based test profiles and brain dysfunction. But, the results were negative as in the FMRI was not able to record and abnormality other than the core ADHD profile of the brain dysfunction in any of the subgroups because every subgroup showed dysfunction in different regions of the brain depending upon their specific brain impairment.

The results point towards the fact that every brain has different neural systems to manage the executive functions as well as reward processing that are known to contribute individually to the growth of ADHD symptoms.

Well, the study is at a preliminary level and hence as per the researchers it would definitely require detailed study in order to prove that ADHD is a collection of different disorders but this initial study does pave a path to it. The study would also help with effective treatments of people with these conditions because some ADHD medications might not just work well with one subgroup while it might work well with another work group. Hence, targeted treatment would be the approach to be taken because these findings do highlight that more than one factor is definitely responsible for psychiatric disorders like ADHD.

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*Source from the internet

Brushing Teeth Habits in Children

Brushing Teeth Habits in Children

Usually families follow the routine of putting the habit of brushing teeth in kids two times a day, in the morning and evening before going to bed. But, it seems that brushing just two times a day isn’t enough in little toddlers and kids. The reason is that toddlers or kids eat three to four times a day and hence bacteria keep building across the day as well. As per the National Association of the Education of Young Children or NAEYC, which is considered to be by far a gold standard when it comes to dental recommendations has the following criteria under its accreditation. The children who are older than a year and eat more than two or three meals a day have to be provided the facility of brushing teeth and cleaning their gums when at the play house day care or activity centre they are enrolled in. It also states that the practice of providing posters near the sink which demonstrate proper teeth cleaning or brushing procedures to kids need to be put up so that the kids can mimic these steps and brush their teeth properly.

Child Care Centres – the Scenario
Now, the criteria that requires children to brush their teeth at these centres does not fit in the routines of the centres at all. Primarily because there are two teachers in a class and around fifteen to twenty students. Brushing routines would definitely consume a lot of time considering the scenario. Additionally, brushing teeth is sort of messy activity for little toddlers who are still in the process of acquiring motor skills, adding to the work load and time consumption as well. Additionally, it would also add to the cost because it would required the centre to maintain a stock of brushes toothpastes and towels for each kid around while keep up with sanitary measures and hygiene.

Well, the implementation of this routine is definitely going to help kids with dental care but it does not replace the need for dental care at home. Though, it requires suggestions that would ease some load from the care centres. For example if students are asked to carry their own brushes and toothpastes, it could save the costs of the centres. So, if viable solutions are worked out then definitely it can be implemented in schools and will also help inculcate dental hygiene habits in children.

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Keywords That Indicate Suicidal Risks

Detecting suicidal thoughts ain’t that easy. There are a various reasons, one of them being patients not sharing these thoughts with anyone, the stigmas around it and getting away with questionnaires designed for detecting suicidal thoughts. Well, you may call this a thing of the past now because there is a ray of hope or good news around this issue. Recently researchers have found out that a brain imaging technique an identity people based on asking them meaning of certain keywords with the help of machine learning analysis.

In the study, around 34 young adults half without a history of suicide attempt and half with a history of suicide attempt were studied. They were placed in a functional magnetic resonance imaging machine (FMRI). This machine is used to measure activity of the brain through blood flow monitoring. They were then given 30 different words, pertaining to positive and negative feelings both like kindness, trouble, carefree and more. The researchers made use of machine learning to for mapping the brain of the subjects and the results were astounding. The machine rightly recognized the participant subjects with history of suicide and without 91% of the times.

The researchers observed that the minds of the subjects with suicidal history responded in a different way to the keywords as those without such a history. As per the researchers, suicidal ideation is the same as what you think about things. They feel that even if the study is on a smaller scale it is promising enough because the results do find a ray of hope in the use of FMRI alongside machine learning. The researchers also believe that if the same is proved with larger studies, it could be of great tool for doctors for assessments of suicidal risks and also device targeted treatments. Having said that, researchers also brought forward the fact that FMRI machines cost a bomb. Hence, the team was also trying to figure out cheaper alternatives and working on using the electroencephalogram (EEG) – which is used for detecting brains electrical activity for cracking the concepts around suicide as well as negative and positive feelings.

Though there are a lot many questions around the future including the privacy question, the technology overall is definitely a helpful one as it certainly help doctors in minimizing suicidal risks.

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*Source from the internet

Drinking Red Wine Could Save Your Life

So, if you are a red wine fanatic then here’s some good news for you. Research has showed that red wine helps in preventing heart diseases, attacks and cancer, if consumed in moderation. Though many of us do think that it is not the case and even debate on defining moderate in terms of exact quantity. But, before we discuss that or elaborate on that lets just know what is red wine all about, how its made and how its beneficial to humankind.

Drinking Red Wine Could Save Your Life

Red Wine Making – Dark color red grapes are crushed and fermented with alcohol content that ranging from 12 to 15%. Many of you may have seen this process in movie songs and travel or lifestyle channels where people are seen having fun jumping into a bucket full of black grapes and crushing them. Many of us also know about the longitivity French people exhibit and there is this belief that the live long and healthy only because they consume red wine.

Red Wine Content – Now, the explanation lies in the content of black grapes. These grapes are known to be a great source of many antioxidants like proanthocyanidins, catechin, epicatechin and resveratrol. The lowest in quantity is resveratrol that is present in the grapes skin. But, this component is said to be highly effective when it comes to treating blood clots and inflammation. It is also known to reduce the risk of heart ailments and cancer. Having said that, the quantity is so found in grapes is so less that it would take numerous bottles of wine intake to garner the benefits of it and hence does not seem to be a beneficial component. Though the other components are responsible for reducing the risk of cancer, depression and dementia by a considerable extent.

Last but not the least the maths about the permissible quantity of red wine for a healthy heart. Research says that intake of red wine in moderation viz 145 ml or so can reduce the risk of heart disease by over 30% as compared to non drinkers of red wine. So, that’s some good news ain’t it?, for red wine drinkers apparently. Hey, but beware that drinking red wine in excess of this can apparently turn tables and you could be at high risk of heart disease. So, if you are an excessive drinker of red wine, try to get to the moderate limits and save your own life. For those who drink in moderation already, congrats you smart heads, you are already on the way to a healthy long life. An as for non drinkers. Fret not there is no need to begin drinking, you can figure out many other healthy ways to increase your longetivity.

Leptin Therapy – Cardiovascular Healthcare for People With Too Little Fat

We all know pretty well that too much of fat in body can lead to serious health and cardiovascular problems. But, little do we know that even too little fat can lead to cariovascular issues, as per a recent study. This is a rare condition and is known as Congenital lipodystrophy. It is the polar opposite of high fat condition known as obesity, which we are all aware off and has the ability to damage the heart in the same way as high fat levels.

Fat helps regulate use and storage of fat and is a major leptin producer, considered to be of significant importance in cardiovascular health. If someone has the congenital lipodystrophy condition, then the leptin and fat content is very low. Further, when they consume lipids or fat, there is no way to go and they get stored or piled up rather in the heart, muscle or liver. This is quite unnatural and not good for body organs, thus increasing the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. There seems to be a visible solution in the pipeline for this condition though and it is called Leptin replacement therapy. Though its effects are largely unknown, doctors are of the opinion that is is a good therapy and works well. It actually restores the endothelial function that get’s impaired when a patient suffers from this condition besides restoring the healthy glucose levels as well.

Now endothelial cells are responsible for production of eNOS,, a dilator, powerful enough to enable the blood vessels to relax. In the condition of lipdystrophy, the NOX1 enzyme expression increases thus producing reactive oxygen species of high damaging levels. The scientists are therefore studying the relationship of endothelial cells and leptin and explore further interactions wherein the want to watch on results of giving too much leptin, could lead to negative results though early on they seem to be positive.

Alternative treatments suggest liposuction of fat deposit removal in addition to exercise and balance diet intake.

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Addiction – The Real Causes

Many of us often wonder why addicts cannot do away with their habit once they get hooked to it. Though, many of us feel that it is basically out of pleasure that addicts indulge into stimulants and opioids like heroin, cocain and euphoria inducing ones like nicotine. They are umpteen myths around drug addictions as well doing the rounds for quite sometime now. Here is a curtain raiser for some of them.

Addiction The Real Causes

The two most common explanations around drug addictions are that compulsive drug addictions is a bad habit as its just that is done for getting a kick.
Now, here’s something to clear the fog away around this myth. If we dig deeper into the meaning of habit, it indicates ability of doing repetitive tasks and that’s about it. Its just like your routine habits of brushing teeth or combing hair. Though these habits doesn’t get people hooked on to them and does not become compulsive or like an addiction.

Withdrawal is another important issue that needs to be handled properly because for addictions like alcohol withdrawal could lead to death. Withdrawal leads to an unpleasant feeling that includes pain, chills, anxiety and more if one stops intake of the drug. This is one of the major reasons responsible for addicts not able to leave their addictions.

This brings us to two types of psychological experiences related to the brain namely liking and wanting. To explain the same with the help of an example like chocolate for example. Wanting would be the desire to have it once you see it in front of you while liking would be the experience you have once to eat it off. Now Dopamine produced by the brain is responsible for wanting only and not liking something.

We crave for more drugs only because drugs trigger the need for dopamine, a feeling of wanting in the brain. With repeated use of drugs the wanting thus grows but somewhere the liking goes stagnates or decreases.

Talking about involuntary addicts who take opioids prescribed by doctors for pain apparently do it to relieve themselves from pain and that is how they perceive their idea of pleasure. Though over time the doses has to be increased as they develop intolerance about it. As a result the wanting also grows leading to an addiction of sorts. Hyper active wanting leads to intense craving on seeing the drug or drug cue exposure. The effects are surely long lasting and genetic factors do lead to increased risk.

As responsible citizens and family members we also need to change our view of looking at addicts and that anyone of us can get affected by the same. Also, many a times addicts are aware of the pain and suffering they are causing themselves and others but the craving is much stronger than their will power to overcome it.

Well, we need to be compassionate and support people rather than distrust them or consider them as a disgrace.

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Do You Know Which Toothpaste Suits Your Teeth?

All of us brush our teeth on a daily basis and many of us twice a day as well. We pay attention on the toothbrush we buy and most of us are aware that we need to change our toothpaste every 3 months atleast. Now, one thing we do not pay attention is at the toothpaste and no one would deny with the fact that we have only one toothpaste brand at home and all of use use the same. Apparently, every individual has different teeth types and it is advisable to use a toothpaste that suits your teeth type to keep your smile intact for a long long time.

Do You Know Which Toothpaste Suits Your Teeth?

Before we choose a toothpaste we need to know the basic ingredients to lookout for while buying one. There are three main ingredients which form a toothpaste. They are Calcium carbonate, artificial sweetener and detergent. Detergent kills the bacteria and cleans as well. Calcium carbonate or silicates provide the abrasion required to eliminate stuck bacteria and food particles and artificial sweetener enhance the flavor because toothpaste with flouride and calcium carbonate doesn’t taste good at all. Now, let us find out the types of toothpastes and their suitability as well.

Herbal Toothpaste
As the name says, it is made from herbal extracts like cloves , ginger, oils and more. But, one thing to ensure is whether fluoride which is an essential ingredient of a toothpaste is there or not because without it, the toothpaste won’t be as effective.

Whitening Toothpaste
As we age our teeth start changing color and losing their whiteness. So, for people wanting to have white teeth, this toothpaste works well. It uses enzyme system and fluoride that whitens your teeth besides fighting germs. Some toothpastes even contain baking soda and peroxide for stain prevention and lightening color.

Toothpaste for Sensitivity
Some of us faces issues like tooth pain we we consume hot or cold beverages or particular type of food. Now, the reason behind the same is either a weak enamel or an exposed root. This is called tooth sensitivity and the doctor on diagnosis does recommend you to use the toothpaste that could fight it.

Flouride toothpastes
Flouride toothpaste does the role of strengthening teeth and preventing decay and is generally good for kids and adults.

Though, if you want to know what type of toothpaste suits your teeth then it is advisable to consult your dentist and start using the recommended one. This would help your eat and smile for a long long time without difficulty.

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Parasite inside human Eye

Yes, this is a fact, a 17 year old teen had damaged his right eye due to the presence of a parasitic worm that was seen wriggling in and out of the eye ball of this teen when examined by the doctors in Mexico. Though, it was a little too late because the eye was already damaged by the time it was examined and the diagnosis was done and the boy had almost lost complete vision. The doctors tested his vision and came to know that he was not even able to count their fingers when held in front of the eye. The vision was blurred and he was able to see only hand motions. After complete eye examination it was found that the right eye was severly damaged.

Parasite inside human Eye

The freely moving worm had created many holes in the iris and his right cornea was swollen and had blood spots. The worm could not be traced easily because it made these holes its safe haven. The doctors had to work hard in removing the worm from the eye and for the same they had to first remove the lens and the vitreous humor surgically. It further came to light during the surgery that the worm had also severely damaged the retina of the teen.

The worm was identified as fluke or a kind of termatode, usually found in species namely Schistosomagenus, fasciola and Paragonimus, but its particular genus wasn’t known because it was not under the included list of termatodes and was seen for the very first time. It had an overall length of 3 mm was removed in bits and pieces.

Post the surgery the teen was given anti-parasitic medicines as well but there wasnt seen any improvement as far as the vision is concerned even after six months post surgery.

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Zika Virus and Brain Cancer

One of the most dreaded diseases in India is Cancer and its various varieties. As on day there are a variety of treatments available to treat cancer through surgeries and therapies. But, we are yet to find a treatment that guarantees uprooting cancer from its root and even vaccines to avoid it altogether. Here’s some update on zika virus and its association with brain cancer.

Zika Virus and Brain Cancer

Most of us are aware of the havoc that Zika virus has been creating since its outbreak in the south african countries. But, we are less known of some new updates on the same. Researchers apparently have found out its usage in brain cancer treatment beyond its significant threat to the unborn children.

Though untested in humans yet, the results after testing on lab dishes and animals do reveal that could help treat brain cancer. Its already known that in infants and fetus, the zika targets the brain stem cells which are found in abundance in their brain cells and kills them. This usually increases the chances of neurological issues in new borns infected with zika. But, zika is not able to target adult brains with the same effectiveness. Comparatively, the effect is less severe plus these viruses have the ability to target and kill the lethal glioblastomas, stem cells which are lethal and are not affected by chemotherapy or radiation therapy and trigger the cancer again post treatment.

This research had further created rays of hope in treating brain cancer but requires further studies and tests to be carried out on animals before trying out on humankind. The reason mainly revolves around safety issues related to zika virus. Presently, there are research groups that are also testing other virus like polio, herpes and more in order to target glioblastomas. The use of zika virus as a brain cancer healer aide might require quite some time and a lot of further testing before it hits the cancer hospitals across the world.

All You Need To Know About throat Cancer

Though we as humankind haven’t had a breakthrough in completely treating every kind of cancer or a vaccine in protecting ourselves from it, if we are alert enough, there is every possibility of catching hold of it at an early stage so as to treat it well before it goes out of control. One such cancer type is throat cancer. As goes its name, it is the cancer of throat and affects the pharynx as well as the larynx or voice box. While the pharynx is located above the esophagus and larynx and below the nasal cavity, the larynx is located in the front of the neck.

Throat-Cancer-causes-symptoms

The risk factors associated with throat cancer include –
Sexually transmitted virus known as human papillomavirus (HPV)
Addictions like tobacco, gutkha, alchohol and smoking
A diet free from fruits and vegetables
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
Genetics viz inherited defects in certain genes
Aesbestos exposure
Dental hygiene issues
Throat Cancer Stages

There are three different stages in throat cancer. If detected at an early stage throat cancer is pretty much treatable with surgery and radiation.

Symptoms of Throat Cancer
Symptoms of throat cancer include blood coughing, swelling in lymph nodes, trouble swallowing and more. Other than that some of the potential symptoms of cancer include the following
Cough that rarely goes away
Constant Throat Clearance
Unexplained Weight loss
Soar Throat
Ear pain
Hoarseness

Stages of Throat Cancer
The levels of throat cancer are spread across four stages 0 to 3.
Stage 0 – This is the earliest stage of caner wherein the tissue isn’t affected any other areas except your throat.
Stage 1 – The cancer has not affected any other areas beyond the throat but the size of it is less than or equal to 7 cm.
Stage 2 – The size of the throat has crossed 7 cm but still hasn’t invaded other organs
Stage 3 – The cancer has spread upto nearby organs and tissues.
Stage 4 – The cancer has spread to distant organs as well as lymph nodes

Throat Cancer Diagnosis
For diagnosis the doctor or oncologist may ask to do a biopsy or a fine needle aspiration. The biopsy recommended could be either a conventional biopsy or an endoscopic biopsy. The doctors would further recommend a few tests for determining the stage of your cancer. These include CT scan, PET scan or a MRI test.

Treatment of Throat Cancer
The treatment would be typically based on the stage of the cancer. It could include removal of the tumor and radiation and chemotherapy later on. It is a prolonged process and not a matter of few days. Repeated tests would have to be carried out to determine how successful the surgery, the radiation or chemotherapy therapy have been. Based on the reports the trajectory of the further treatment would be derived.

Recovery Issues
Throat cancer complications after the surgery and treatment could include disfigurement of neck and face primarily. This though can be fixed to a certain extent through surgery. The other issues that a patient may face during recovery includes breathing and swallowing difficulty, trouble while speaking and skin hardening around the neck.

Cancer of any kind is a condition which if caught hold of early on can be treated and many a times completely eradicated but this requires you to be alert and keep a eye on your health like a hawk. Regular health checkups are advisable for the same.

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