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All You Need to Know About Open Heart Surgery

Open heart surgery is performed when the coronary arteries supplying blood to the heart are blocked and is the gold standard treatment for the same. The condition arising due to blockage of coronary artery is known as coronary artery disease. Open heart surgery is done to regulate the flow of blood through the arteries and prevent damage to the heart. In the procedure, blood vessels from other parts of the body are used to create a bypass. Generally two to four coronary arteries are grafted for regulating blood flow to the heart.

There are three types of bypass surgeries depending on the number of bypasses done, namely double bypass, triple bypass and quadruple bypass.

Open Heart Surgery – Open heart surgery is considered only if the blockage if the blockage is such that placing the stent is not feasible. Also, if there is severe coronary disease in the left main artery or in multiple arteries and there is high risk of heart damage. To check the exact blockage scenario cardiac surgeons advice on having a complete testing done. An angiogram is used for checking the severity of coronary disease. The other tests done before and after the surgery include electrocardiogram (EKG), blood tests and specific dietary instructions.

Open Heart Surgery

Types of Open Heart Surgeries

  • On Pump Open heart surgery

During the on pump open heart surgery the surgery is performed under general anesthesia while keeping the patient on ventilator support. The primary step in the surgery is harvesting the blood vessels. Generally the saphenous vein in the leg is used as it is long enough to create multiple grafts. Alternatively, if it cannot be used then vessels from the arm can be used. After the saphenous vein work is done, the chest is opened by making an incision along the breast bone. The surgeon cuts the sternum to gain access to the heart.

In traditional or off pump CABG procedure, the heart needs to be stopped using potassium so that the surgeon does not have to perform the surgery on a beating heart. The blood circulation is kept on with the help of a heart lung machine and the ventilator is switched off. The machine then does the work of the heart as well as the lungs. The surgeon either removes the existing blood vessel and replaces the same to remove blockage or reroutes the blood around the blockage. Three could be one or more grafts to be performed. Once the grafting is completed the heart is restarted. The sternum is placed to its original position and closed with the help of a surgical wire. The surgical wire helps in providing strength to the bone for healing. Lastly, the surgeon closes the incision.

On pump surgery is recommended for unstable patients. The surgeon performs the surgery on a still heart so the process is quicker and even the bleeding is minimal. Alternatively, the cons include inflammation/ clotting after surgery, transfusion and fluid retention. Though after on pump surgery the risk of stroke does increase.

  • Off Pump Open heart surgery

The off pump surgery is very much similar to off pump except that the blood flow through the body is maintained by the heart only and not the heart lung machine as in on pump surgery. The area to be grafted is held with the help of surgical instruments while the heart keeps pumping. This surgery is done on tentatively 20% of the CABG patients undergoing the surgery for the first time.

This surgery is less expensive surgery compared to on pump and it also reduces the risk of stroke. Also, blood loss and transfusions are less compared to on pump. The hospital stay required is also less. 70% of the patients are not recommended to do the surgery due to the condition. The surgery is not recommended for unstable patients.

Recovery
The recovery period includes stay in Intensive care unit for 24 hours. The chest tubes are removed post 48 hours and then the patient is shifted out of ICU. Once the patient is awake the breathing tubes are removed so that the patient can breathe on his/ her own. Though supplemental oxygen may be given through the nose to help with breathing. The patient will be monitored closely and if he/she is unable to breathe, the breathing tube might be inserted again. Once the patient starts breathing on his/her own, swift rehabilitation steps are put into place. This include sitting up on the edge of the bed, walking while taking care of the wound and preventing pain, etc.

Life Expectancy
The life expectancy has greatly increased over the years upto 98% and people undergoing the surgery can easily lead a normal life as that of the others who haven’t undergone any surgery.

” Vydehi Institute of Cardiac Sciences is a well equipped super speciality centre located in Vydehi Hospital designed to serve your hearts needs. It is equipped to treat all cardiac, cardiothoracic and vascular cases.  It uses all the latest equipment and technology coupled with the years of experience in its faculty.”

*Sourced from the Internet

Cocoa is Good for Health!

If you are the one who loves indulging in dark coffees, there’s some good news right up for you. A study has revealed that cocoa is major source of Vitamin D. Hence, food rich in cocoa like cocoa powder, dark, chocolates, cocoa beans, cocoa butter and more can boost your Vitamin D intake. Vitamin D has two types – Vitamin D2 and Vitamin D3. Vitamin D2 is present is foods like eggs, fish and chicken while D3 is produced by the human skin under sun exposure. The study was published in the journal Food Chemistry and mentioned that cocoa is an actually rich source of Vitamin D2, one of the two types of vitamin D. The richness but varies from food to food like white chocolate will have a lesser amount of Vitamin D2 compared to Dark Chocolates.

cocoa

The research team dried the cocoa beans after fermentation and placed them on mats. These were then exposed to sun for a couple of weeks. The idea was to determine if cocoa was a vital source of Vitamin D. As per researchers cocoa butter as well as dark chocolate had the highest amount of Vitamin D2. They also pointed out that vitamin D deficiency could lead to brittle bones as well as respiratory disorders. Having said that they also mentioned that consuming cocoa based products in high quantity is not advisable because it does contain high fat and sugar, which are known to be bad for health.

Do you want to know about foods that are a rich source of vitamin D and not harmful to health as much as eating too much of dark chocolates? Here are 5 foods veg and non-veg, rich in Vitamin D and good for health.

Soy milk – It’s extracted from plant and is rich source of vitamin D. It’s a good for health and vegans.

Mushroom – Again a rich source of Vitamin D and favourite food of many. Many delicious recipes are already available for you to experiment and relish.

Dairy Produce – If you are a cheese lover, be happy, cheese is one of the richest sources of Vitamin D. But, that does not mean to eat burgers and pizzas loaded with cheese but it means you may add a slice or two for your breakfast.

Egg – Egg is one product that many of us can eat day in and day out. It’s loaded with protein and super healthy. The yolk of the egg is rich in Vitamin D. So eat eggs with the yoke to draw in more Vitamin D.

Fish- All fish are known to be a rich source of vitamin D. But, oil and fatty fish have more Vitamin D content compared to others. These include Tuna, mackerel, Salmon and trout to name a few.

A world class integrated healthcare system, with a focus on compassionate supercare.
Leading the way in education, research and practice – Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences & Research Centre

*Sourced from the Internet

Cancer Vaccine that can Cure 97% of Tumor from Mice Approved for Human Trial

Yes, you read that right. As per researchers of Stanford University, a vaccine they tested on mice has worked well in curing around 97% of the tumors in mice and is ready for human trial. According to SFGate. the human trial is scheduled to be conducted on 35 people suffering from lymphoma before the year ends.

The study was earlier tested on mice with cancers ranging from colon, breast and lymphoma. The results were welcoming, because this treatment cured around 87 mice out of the 90. The best part is that tumors in some mice had spread through other parts of the body too and even then they could be cured.

Cancer Vaccine That can Cure 97% of Tumor from Mice Approved for Human trial

As per the regional director of breast surgery at North-well Health Cancer Institute in Westchester, New York, even if the news was exciting enough, the results on animals might not be the same as that on humans. So, there is still a long way to go before the treatment works for particularly cancers other than lymphoma, viz. breast and colon.

Though it is called a vaccine, technically it ain’t. It is more of an immunotherapy. It is still given the name of a vaccine for a reason that is does contain a vaccine like injection. Also, as per the American society of clinical oncology, cancer vaccines can be used for referring treatment of cancer and preventing it from coming back. This vaccine involves the injection of the vaccine into the existing tumor. It does the role of reactivating the T cells. These T cells are responsible for infiltrating and attacking the cancer cells. But, as the tumor increases, the cancer tells suppress these T cells.
Immunotherapy is not something new though. It has been in practice for quite some time. A treatment called CAR t-cell therapy has been already approved some time back for leukemia as well as lymphoma. This therapy is about removing certain immune cells from the body and genetically engineer these cells so that they become capable of fighting cancer.

But, the advantage of this therapy over CAR T-cell therapy is that nothing from the body is to be removed or customized. Here it’s just targeted therapy where the doctors will be concentrating and attacking specific targets.

Though this study is one step forward in the direction to treat cancer but still it’s a long way to go.

Vydehi Institute of Oncology & Research Centre is one of the first centers in India to commission IGRT (Image guided radiation therapy) with respiratory gating apart from having other radiation equipment like High Dose Rate Brachytherapy (HDR).

*Source from the Internet

How To Deal With Canker Sores

A type of ulcer, Canker sores in the mouth in white or grey color can be painful at times. They mostly occur on the softer parts of the mouth like the lips, cheeks and tongue. Scientifically termed as recurrent aphtous stomatitis or RAS, it has the tendency to reappear once subsided many times.
Canker sores generally do not require any treatment and can heal within a week or two. The severe form of Canker known as RAS can cause larger ulcers with scarring and can last upto a couple of weeks.

Canker Sores

Here are a few tips on dealing with Canker sores at home -
Mouth Rinse – Using a mouth wash with antiseptic properties can help numbing the mouth and prevent infection.

Brushing – Using a soft toothbrush can help dealing with canker sores. Brushing teeth on a daily basis and maintaining good oral hygiene

Vitamin B 12 – A study has found that Vitamin B12 supplements can help reduce canker sore pain as well as reduced the occurrence as well as reoccurence.

Chamomile tea – Chamomile tea together with honey can help reduce the inflammation and pain caused by canker sores, though it is not clinically proven. You can simply soak the chamomile tea bag in warm water and then apply it to the ulcer directly.

Aloe vera – Aloe vera gel helps in reducing inflammation and pain caused due to the condition though its not clinically proven but in general its deemed as safe by NCCIH.

Cloves – Placing a cotton wool ball soaked in clove oil after cleaning your mouth with a mouth was or sea salt can help in relieving you from the pain and inflammation caused by the condition

Numbing Mouth – Numbing your mouth ulcer with the help of ice cubes can help in relieving the pain and discomfort caused.

Avoiding Certain Foods – When suffering from the conditions intake for spicy, acidic or salty foods can aggravate the pain and stop healing so it is advisable to avoid these foods as far as possible.

OTC Relief products – A lot of gels and patches are already available over the counter to help deal with canker sores effectively.

Apparently, following good dental hygiene is a great way to avoid canker sores primarily, but if it still occurs you may try out the following home based remedies to get relief and faster healing.

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*source from the internet

Mouth Bacteria and Gut Disease – The Trigger

Now, this is not something that is news, but a fact rather – The bacteria present in the mouth do contribute to various different health conditions like ulcerative colitis, chrohn’s disease and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as well.

A research study carried out on mice got results that showed certain bacterias do commute down to the gut in the intestine and settle down there, causing chronic possible chronic inflammation. As per researchers, the study is at preliminary stage, but they sure see ray of hope wherein, there is every possibility in the future to treat diseases like gut and IBD by finding ways to target the bacteria residing in the gut.

Mouth Bacteria and Gut Disease

Though, there have been studies in the past around oral bacteria, which suggest that they are not able to reside in the gut of a person because, other bacteria’s out class them. But, these bacterias are found in the gut of people who have been suffering from colon cancer, IBD and more. For detailed examination the researchers also studied the saliva samples of patients suffering form IBD and Crohn’s disease. The sampled bacteria were then transplanted into mice that were bred to not produce the gut bacteria on their own. The results were as desired the bacteria known as Klebsiella pneumoniae were able to sustain in the intestines of these germ free mice by activating immune cells called T helper cells and also sparked an inflammatory response. But, these same bacteria failed to survive when they were injected into the gut of different type of mice with balanced level of gut bacteria. They could only sustain there if these mice were fed with certain antibiotics. The researchers also trying injecting the K pneumoniae to the mice that prone to colitis or inflammation of colon genetically. The mice did persist there and caused severe inflammation. They also studied fecal microbiome and discovered that human poop of crohn’s and IBD suffering patients has more amount of Klebsiella species as compared to healthy people.

The researchers hypothesis around gut bacteria is that in people with conditions like IBD or other gut conditions, the intestine inflammation creates an environment that favors mouth bacteria. After colonization in the gut these bacteria help in perpetuating chronic inflammation and gut microbiota dysbiosis. Therefore, according to them targeting these bacteria can help in providing strategy for treatment of various IBD and gut conditions in human kind as these bacteria could be termed as the good bacteria inside us.

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All About Human Senses – Five Plus

We all are taught in early school days only about the five human senses. The brain is apparently the decision maker and these sensory organs only help send the information to the brain and help the brain. But, what some of us might not know is there are people with more than five senses in addition to the existing ones. Before we talk about them let us talk about the basic five.

All About Human Senses - Five Plus

Sight – View is not as simple as ti seems. It is a complex procedure involving the transparent outer layer or the eye called cornea, the pupil and the iris. When the light reflects from the object you view to the eye the cornea bend the light as it passes through the pupil hole. The iris is like the camera shutter for eyes which opens to let the light in or retracts to let it out.

Smell – As per researchers humans are able to smell over 1 trillion scents. The nerve endings in olfactory cleft are responsible for transmitting smell to the brain. The oltefactory is located beside the smelling part of the brain on the roof of the nasal cavity. While human are equipped with 400 different smelling recepters, if there are issues in recognizing smells then it could be result of a rare disorder of effect of aging.

Hearing – Hearing is also a complex sensory organ that uses a complex labyrinth called human ear through which it funnels the sound from its external part into the external auditory canal. The sound apparently travels through eardrum or tympanic membrane, a thin connective tissue sheet that vibrates when sound waves strike. It then reaches the auditory ossicles in the middle year. These three little bones are known as malleus (hammer), stapes (stirrup) and incus(anvil) vibrate. The vibrates are send to the corti by the stapes bone by pushing the oval window structure in and out.

Taste – Taste is further divided into three different perceptions called sweet salty bitter and sour. Though scientists and researchers believe that the fifth one is savory or umami, they also say that there are many more that are yet to be discovered. As per the National Library of Medicine, spicy cannot be considered a taste but it is apparently a sign of pain. As humans we have 2000 to 4000 taste buds on the tongue, throat back, nasal cavity, esophagus and epiglottis. But, again smell does help the brain perceive the taste and hence, people with stuffy nose have difficulty recognizing taste properly.

Touch – As per researchers touch is said to be the first sense that humans develop. Specialized neurons in the skin communicate the distinct sensation to the brain. A touch sense includes sensations like touch, vibration, temperature, pain, pressure and more. It is said to be very important to human beings wellness beyond its use for interaction and does influence decision making to a good extent as well.

Now, about the additional senses. We do have some more subtle one that we never perceive. These include neuron sensors that control head tilt and balance besides kinesthetic receptors that are responsible for muscle and tendons stretching detection. Our body also has receptors that detect particular arteries of the bloodstream as well.

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Breathing Effects On Emotions and Judgement

We all know how oxygen is our basic breathing requirement to live, without which life on earth would not be possible. But, now there is more that researchers have discovered about breathing. As per their findings, the breathing pattern or rhythm is responsible fore creating electrical activity in the part of human brain that in turn helps in enhancement of memory recall and emotional judgments.

Breathing Effects On Emotions and Judgement

Further the neurologists also found that there was significant difference in brain activity in the hippocampus and amygdala area during inhalation rather than exhalation. While breathing in the neurons in the olfactory cortext, hippocamus, amygdala and across the limbic system are stimulated.
They apparently discovered the same when some of them were working on seven patients suffering from epilepsy. They were trying to find out the origin of seizures and installed electrodes in the brains of patients a week before surgery thus collecting the electro-physiological data directly from the brains. This is when they found out that while breathing the brain activity fluctuated. Brain activity occurs in areas memory, smells and emotions are processed.

Now, this led to another question on brain activity and it was where cognitive functions were typically associated and affected by breathing particularly memory and fear processing. As per findings the amygdala was linked fear related emotions of emotional processing strongly. To study the same 60 subjects were assigned the activity of making rapid decisions on emotional expressions while breathing in the laboratory itself. They were also shown different types of pictures with facial expressions of surprise or fear and the subjects had to recognize these expressions fast. The results varied in subjects when inhaling, exhaling and inhaling through mouth.

The results indicated that while inhaling the patients were able to recognize the expressions faster and better, of that of fear than exhaling. But, it did not hold true for surprise.

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Why is VIMS one of the Best Colleges for Medical Education

Medical education as we all know is one of the most sought after educational courses in India ever since its inception. Every year thousands for Medical Aspirants slog to the best of their abilities to crack the medical entrance test namely Common Entrance Test & more, for a chance to pursue one of the highest paying degree courses in India and around the world as well.

 Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences

Well, there are many different streams and courses to opt for in the education field in India already, but one field that is still the top scorer in the parents choice of educational courses is Medical Education. So, in case you are willing to join the MBBS or associated medical courses, take it for granted that your parents are definitely going to back you to the fullest. Most of them would be willing to fight all odds to make their child a doctor, even if they have to spend a fortune. So, you need not worry on that front at all. Your worry now remains, cracking the entrance tests and finding the right medical college, for a shining career in medicine.

Let us consider, you are a star scorer and have immense chance of cracking the entrance and getting a variety of college choices to opt from. Now, the second phase involves homework or groundwork for a medical college that offers you best infrastructure, quality education, practical experience and supports you with job opportunities as well.
Considering the location of the college and your education budget does matter, but budget issues could be sorted out if the college is worth, that’s what seems a good idea – ask career experts and they’ll say the same.

Apparently, there are umpteen medical colleges across India, but there are certain important points to consider before selecting a medical college to join in, as already mentioned before. Make a checklist of the points to help you shortlist them and finally narrow down to one of your choice.
Speaking of medical colleges, one college that needs to be checkout is Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore only because it offers medical education of high standards. Located in EPIP area of whitefield, this temple of medical education was established in the year 2000. It has 250 seats available for admission under MBBS undergraduate courses and 56 under post graduate category.

Recognized by the Medical council of India and affiliated to Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, VIMS also has tie ups with global universities like University of California and Georgia. It is nestled amidst a lush green and sprawling campus of 65 acres. Supported by a multi-specialty hospital with facilities of advanced healthcare systems, VIMS & RC focuses on delivering comprehensive, integrated medical education and innovative healthcare technology and research.

This state of the art infrastructure that includes numerous facilities like advanced education and recreation facilities, research and development offerings, library & hostel setup for in depth knowledge acquisition and professional training is just but a part of the comprehensive educational unit it is. Supported by scholars as faculty to for excellence in medicine, VIMS & RC is also equipped with a 1600 bedded multi-specialty hospital for hands on training.

VIMS & RC, thus is not just any medical college, it is actually a powerful platform for aspiring doctors to transform themselves from ordinary human beings to extra ordinary people with a purpose and ability to serve the society and its people as a medical professionals and saviors in a way.

No wonder, it is one of the most sought after institutions for excellence in medical education for all the aspiring students with a passion for healthcare education.

Visit by Professor Sheldon M. Schuster

Prof. Sheldon M Schuster, President of Keck Graduate Institute, CA, USA paid an official visit to Vydehi Campus on March 17, 2017. His visit included the Medical College & Hospital, Vydehi School of Excellence and Vydehi Museum to name a few.

Why Drinking Ample Water Is A Good Idea During Summer?

Why Drinking Ample Water Is A Good Idea During Summer

Summer is just around the corner, and this is the time when health and fitness issues start coming into the picture. But, like they say, there’s always a way out, same is the case here too. To beat the scorching summer heat, one ultimate solution to numerous health and fitness problems definitely is – drinking ample of water. Well, we all know that 8 glasses of water a day is what the health specifics say, but the more, the better always.

Our body is made up of water mostly if not fully, 60% to be precise and makes use of water for every physiological process besides lubrication purpose. Considering the extensive usage of water by our body, it is apparently proven that water is an integral part of our system and its functioning. Let us run down some of the remarkable benefits that this natural resource called water offers to humankind.

CLEARS HARMFUL TOXINS - Starting the day with a warm glass of water coupled with honey or lemon is the best way to get rid of all the toxins out of your body. It is known to be one of the most effective ways to detox and is recommended by many fitness experts.

BOOSTS IMMUNE SYSTEM - Drinking water regularly helps the immune system of the body fight against conditions like kidney stones, heart attacks, digestive disorders, skin disorders, cancers, influenza and more. Consider water as booster dose to the body every single day.

HELPS IN WEIGHT LOSS - Weight gain or loss is much associated with metabolism of the body. Drinking ample water increases your metabolism to an extent and helps you lose weight. Studies have shown impressive figures with over weight and obese people consuming 1 -2 litres of water daily.

PROTECTS FROM DEHYDRATION - The scorching sun is all set to suck out the energy from your body resulting into fatigue, at times back pain and migranes too. So, regular intake in the body keeps you rehydrated, up and active.

AVOIDS CONSTIPATION – Water aids the digestion process just like a catalyst. It helps the body break down the complexities of the food and absorb the nutrients. It also avoids constipation issues by softening the stool.

RELIEVES AND AVOIDS PAIN – Water is the best preventive measure to avoid bodily issues like cramps, back aches as it keeps the whole body lubricated. It also is a great remedy on problems like headaches, migranes caused due to dehyrdation.

Above all, water keeps you fresh and activated throughout the day and has many more benefits associated with it other than the afore-mentioned few. So, if you want to stay fit and active try to sip in a lot of water throughout the day and stay away from health issues – that too at almost no cost.

What’s more, you can even Drink and Drive!….:)

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