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ADHD – Collection Of Different Disorders?

ADHD or Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder as is it is known is a common disorder in human kind. Well, researchers have some news to share around the same now. As per the researchers, people with this condition are known to have impairments in brain. Further these impairments are unique in nature and hence it is very difficult to have a common explanation for the cause of this condition.

ADHD - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

The findings are based on the research carried out over 117 adolescents having ADHD. They were assessed for impulsive behavior which is known to be one of the most typical behavior in the condition. The study revealed that the participants had shown three different types of characteristics thus leading to creation of three sub categories –
Group 1 – Showed impulsive motor responses during fast moving visual tasks
Group 2 – Showed immediate reward preference
Group 3 – Showed normal behavior for both the tasks compared to 134 non ADHD adolescents

Though the researchers also made it clear that only cognitive testing could help distinguish ADHD patients of different subgroups. They also used the functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) to find out the relation between the impulsive behavior based test profiles and brain dysfunction. But, the results were negative as in the FMRI was not able to record and abnormality other than the core ADHD profile of the brain dysfunction in any of the subgroups because every subgroup showed dysfunction in different regions of the brain depending upon their specific brain impairment.

The results point towards the fact that every brain has different neural systems to manage the executive functions as well as reward processing that are known to contribute individually to the growth of ADHD symptoms.

Well, the study is at a preliminary level and hence as per the researchers it would definitely require detailed study in order to prove that ADHD is a collection of different disorders but this initial study does pave a path to it. The study would also help with effective treatments of people with these conditions because some ADHD medications might not just work well with one subgroup while it might work well with another work group. Hence, targeted treatment would be the approach to be taken because these findings do highlight that more than one factor is definitely responsible for psychiatric disorders like ADHD.

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*Source from the internet

Brushing Teeth Habits in Children

Brushing Teeth Habits in Children

Usually families follow the routine of putting the habit of brushing teeth in kids two times a day, in the morning and evening before going to bed. But, it seems that brushing just two times a day isn’t enough in little toddlers and kids. The reason is that toddlers or kids eat three to four times a day and hence bacteria keep building across the day as well. As per the National Association of the Education of Young Children or NAEYC, which is considered to be by far a gold standard when it comes to dental recommendations has the following criteria under its accreditation. The children who are older than a year and eat more than two or three meals a day have to be provided the facility of brushing teeth and cleaning their gums when at the play house day care or activity centre they are enrolled in. It also states that the practice of providing posters near the sink which demonstrate proper teeth cleaning or brushing procedures to kids need to be put up so that the kids can mimic these steps and brush their teeth properly.

Child Care Centres – the Scenario
Now, the criteria that requires children to brush their teeth at these centres does not fit in the routines of the centres at all. Primarily because there are two teachers in a class and around fifteen to twenty students. Brushing routines would definitely consume a lot of time considering the scenario. Additionally, brushing teeth is sort of messy activity for little toddlers who are still in the process of acquiring motor skills, adding to the work load and time consumption as well. Additionally, it would also add to the cost because it would required the centre to maintain a stock of brushes toothpastes and towels for each kid around while keep up with sanitary measures and hygiene.

Well, the implementation of this routine is definitely going to help kids with dental care but it does not replace the need for dental care at home. Though, it requires suggestions that would ease some load from the care centres. For example if students are asked to carry their own brushes and toothpastes, it could save the costs of the centres. So, if viable solutions are worked out then definitely it can be implemented in schools and will also help inculcate dental hygiene habits in children.

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Keywords That Indicate Suicidal Risks

Detecting suicidal thoughts ain’t that easy. There are a various reasons, one of them being patients not sharing these thoughts with anyone, the stigmas around it and getting away with questionnaires designed for detecting suicidal thoughts. Well, you may call this a thing of the past now because there is a ray of hope or good news around this issue. Recently researchers have found out that a brain imaging technique an identity people based on asking them meaning of certain keywords with the help of machine learning analysis.

In the study, around 34 young adults half without a history of suicide attempt and half with a history of suicide attempt were studied. They were placed in a functional magnetic resonance imaging machine (FMRI). This machine is used to measure activity of the brain through blood flow monitoring. They were then given 30 different words, pertaining to positive and negative feelings both like kindness, trouble, carefree and more. The researchers made use of machine learning to for mapping the brain of the subjects and the results were astounding. The machine rightly recognized the participant subjects with history of suicide and without 91% of the times.

The researchers observed that the minds of the subjects with suicidal history responded in a different way to the keywords as those without such a history. As per the researchers, suicidal ideation is the same as what you think about things. They feel that even if the study is on a smaller scale it is promising enough because the results do find a ray of hope in the use of FMRI alongside machine learning. The researchers also believe that if the same is proved with larger studies, it could be of great tool for doctors for assessments of suicidal risks and also device targeted treatments. Having said that, researchers also brought forward the fact that FMRI machines cost a bomb. Hence, the team was also trying to figure out cheaper alternatives and working on using the electroencephalogram (EEG) – which is used for detecting brains electrical activity for cracking the concepts around suicide as well as negative and positive feelings.

Though there are a lot many questions around the future including the privacy question, the technology overall is definitely a helpful one as it certainly help doctors in minimizing suicidal risks.

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*Source from the internet

Mouth Bacteria and Gut Disease – The Trigger

Now, this is not something that is news, but a fact rather – The bacteria present in the mouth do contribute to various different health conditions like ulcerative colitis, chrohn’s disease and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as well.

A research study carried out on mice got results that showed certain bacterias do commute down to the gut in the intestine and settle down there, causing chronic possible chronic inflammation. As per researchers, the study is at preliminary stage, but they sure see ray of hope wherein, there is every possibility in the future to treat diseases like gut and IBD by finding ways to target the bacteria residing in the gut.

Mouth Bacteria and Gut Disease

Though, there have been studies in the past around oral bacteria, which suggest that they are not able to reside in the gut of a person because, other bacteria’s out class them. But, these bacterias are found in the gut of people who have been suffering from colon cancer, IBD and more. For detailed examination the researchers also studied the saliva samples of patients suffering form IBD and Crohn’s disease. The sampled bacteria were then transplanted into mice that were bred to not produce the gut bacteria on their own. The results were as desired the bacteria known as Klebsiella pneumoniae were able to sustain in the intestines of these germ free mice by activating immune cells called T helper cells and also sparked an inflammatory response. But, these same bacteria failed to survive when they were injected into the gut of different type of mice with balanced level of gut bacteria. They could only sustain there if these mice were fed with certain antibiotics. The researchers also trying injecting the K pneumoniae to the mice that prone to colitis or inflammation of colon genetically. The mice did persist there and caused severe inflammation. They also studied fecal microbiome and discovered that human poop of crohn’s and IBD suffering patients has more amount of Klebsiella species as compared to healthy people.

The researchers hypothesis around gut bacteria is that in people with conditions like IBD or other gut conditions, the intestine inflammation creates an environment that favors mouth bacteria. After colonization in the gut these bacteria help in perpetuating chronic inflammation and gut microbiota dysbiosis. Therefore, according to them targeting these bacteria can help in providing strategy for treatment of various IBD and gut conditions in human kind as these bacteria could be termed as the good bacteria inside us.

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All About Human Senses – Five Plus

We all are taught in early school days only about the five human senses. The brain is apparently the decision maker and these sensory organs only help send the information to the brain and help the brain. But, what some of us might not know is there are people with more than five senses in addition to the existing ones. Before we talk about them let us talk about the basic five.

All About Human Senses - Five Plus

Sight – View is not as simple as ti seems. It is a complex procedure involving the transparent outer layer or the eye called cornea, the pupil and the iris. When the light reflects from the object you view to the eye the cornea bend the light as it passes through the pupil hole. The iris is like the camera shutter for eyes which opens to let the light in or retracts to let it out.

Smell – As per researchers humans are able to smell over 1 trillion scents. The nerve endings in olfactory cleft are responsible for transmitting smell to the brain. The oltefactory is located beside the smelling part of the brain on the roof of the nasal cavity. While human are equipped with 400 different smelling recepters, if there are issues in recognizing smells then it could be result of a rare disorder of effect of aging.

Hearing – Hearing is also a complex sensory organ that uses a complex labyrinth called human ear through which it funnels the sound from its external part into the external auditory canal. The sound apparently travels through eardrum or tympanic membrane, a thin connective tissue sheet that vibrates when sound waves strike. It then reaches the auditory ossicles in the middle year. These three little bones are known as malleus (hammer), stapes (stirrup) and incus(anvil) vibrate. The vibrates are send to the corti by the stapes bone by pushing the oval window structure in and out.

Taste – Taste is further divided into three different perceptions called sweet salty bitter and sour. Though scientists and researchers believe that the fifth one is savory or umami, they also say that there are many more that are yet to be discovered. As per the National Library of Medicine, spicy cannot be considered a taste but it is apparently a sign of pain. As humans we have 2000 to 4000 taste buds on the tongue, throat back, nasal cavity, esophagus and epiglottis. But, again smell does help the brain perceive the taste and hence, people with stuffy nose have difficulty recognizing taste properly.

Touch – As per researchers touch is said to be the first sense that humans develop. Specialized neurons in the skin communicate the distinct sensation to the brain. A touch sense includes sensations like touch, vibration, temperature, pain, pressure and more. It is said to be very important to human beings wellness beyond its use for interaction and does influence decision making to a good extent as well.

Now, about the additional senses. We do have some more subtle one that we never perceive. These include neuron sensors that control head tilt and balance besides kinesthetic receptors that are responsible for muscle and tendons stretching detection. Our body also has receptors that detect particular arteries of the bloodstream as well.

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Breathing Effects On Emotions and Judgement

We all know how oxygen is our basic breathing requirement to live, without which life on earth would not be possible. But, now there is more that researchers have discovered about breathing. As per their findings, the breathing pattern or rhythm is responsible fore creating electrical activity in the part of human brain that in turn helps in enhancement of memory recall and emotional judgments.

Breathing Effects On Emotions and Judgement

Further the neurologists also found that there was significant difference in brain activity in the hippocampus and amygdala area during inhalation rather than exhalation. While breathing in the neurons in the olfactory cortext, hippocamus, amygdala and across the limbic system are stimulated.
They apparently discovered the same when some of them were working on seven patients suffering from epilepsy. They were trying to find out the origin of seizures and installed electrodes in the brains of patients a week before surgery thus collecting the electro-physiological data directly from the brains. This is when they found out that while breathing the brain activity fluctuated. Brain activity occurs in areas memory, smells and emotions are processed.

Now, this led to another question on brain activity and it was where cognitive functions were typically associated and affected by breathing particularly memory and fear processing. As per findings the amygdala was linked fear related emotions of emotional processing strongly. To study the same 60 subjects were assigned the activity of making rapid decisions on emotional expressions while breathing in the laboratory itself. They were also shown different types of pictures with facial expressions of surprise or fear and the subjects had to recognize these expressions fast. The results varied in subjects when inhaling, exhaling and inhaling through mouth.

The results indicated that while inhaling the patients were able to recognize the expressions faster and better, of that of fear than exhaling. But, it did not hold true for surprise.

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Drinking Red Wine Could Save Your Life

So, if you are a red wine fanatic then here’s some good news for you. Research has showed that red wine helps in preventing heart diseases, attacks and cancer, if consumed in moderation. Though many of us do think that it is not the case and even debate on defining moderate in terms of exact quantity. But, before we discuss that or elaborate on that lets just know what is red wine all about, how its made and how its beneficial to humankind.

Drinking Red Wine Could Save Your Life

Red Wine Making – Dark color red grapes are crushed and fermented with alcohol content that ranging from 12 to 15%. Many of you may have seen this process in movie songs and travel or lifestyle channels where people are seen having fun jumping into a bucket full of black grapes and crushing them. Many of us also know about the longitivity French people exhibit and there is this belief that the live long and healthy only because they consume red wine.

Red Wine Content – Now, the explanation lies in the content of black grapes. These grapes are known to be a great source of many antioxidants like proanthocyanidins, catechin, epicatechin and resveratrol. The lowest in quantity is resveratrol that is present in the grapes skin. But, this component is said to be highly effective when it comes to treating blood clots and inflammation. It is also known to reduce the risk of heart ailments and cancer. Having said that, the quantity is so found in grapes is so less that it would take numerous bottles of wine intake to garner the benefits of it and hence does not seem to be a beneficial component. Though the other components are responsible for reducing the risk of cancer, depression and dementia by a considerable extent.

Last but not the least the maths about the permissible quantity of red wine for a healthy heart. Research says that intake of red wine in moderation viz 145 ml or so can reduce the risk of heart disease by over 30% as compared to non drinkers of red wine. So, that’s some good news ain’t it?, for red wine drinkers apparently. Hey, but beware that drinking red wine in excess of this can apparently turn tables and you could be at high risk of heart disease. So, if you are an excessive drinker of red wine, try to get to the moderate limits and save your own life. For those who drink in moderation already, congrats you smart heads, you are already on the way to a healthy long life. An as for non drinkers. Fret not there is no need to begin drinking, you can figure out many other healthy ways to increase your longetivity.

Leptin Therapy – Cardiovascular Healthcare for People With Too Little Fat

We all know pretty well that too much of fat in body can lead to serious health and cardiovascular problems. But, little do we know that even too little fat can lead to cariovascular issues, as per a recent study. This is a rare condition and is known as Congenital lipodystrophy. It is the polar opposite of high fat condition known as obesity, which we are all aware off and has the ability to damage the heart in the same way as high fat levels.

Fat helps regulate use and storage of fat and is a major leptin producer, considered to be of significant importance in cardiovascular health. If someone has the congenital lipodystrophy condition, then the leptin and fat content is very low. Further, when they consume lipids or fat, there is no way to go and they get stored or piled up rather in the heart, muscle or liver. This is quite unnatural and not good for body organs, thus increasing the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. There seems to be a visible solution in the pipeline for this condition though and it is called Leptin replacement therapy. Though its effects are largely unknown, doctors are of the opinion that is is a good therapy and works well. It actually restores the endothelial function that get’s impaired when a patient suffers from this condition besides restoring the healthy glucose levels as well.

Now endothelial cells are responsible for production of eNOS,, a dilator, powerful enough to enable the blood vessels to relax. In the condition of lipdystrophy, the NOX1 enzyme expression increases thus producing reactive oxygen species of high damaging levels. The scientists are therefore studying the relationship of endothelial cells and leptin and explore further interactions wherein the want to watch on results of giving too much leptin, could lead to negative results though early on they seem to be positive.

Alternative treatments suggest liposuction of fat deposit removal in addition to exercise and balance diet intake.

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Addiction – The Real Causes

Many of us often wonder why addicts cannot do away with their habit once they get hooked to it. Though, many of us feel that it is basically out of pleasure that addicts indulge into stimulants and opioids like heroin, cocain and euphoria inducing ones like nicotine. They are umpteen myths around drug addictions as well doing the rounds for quite sometime now. Here is a curtain raiser for some of them.

Addiction The Real Causes

The two most common explanations around drug addictions are that compulsive drug addictions is a bad habit as its just that is done for getting a kick.
Now, here’s something to clear the fog away around this myth. If we dig deeper into the meaning of habit, it indicates ability of doing repetitive tasks and that’s about it. Its just like your routine habits of brushing teeth or combing hair. Though these habits doesn’t get people hooked on to them and does not become compulsive or like an addiction.

Withdrawal is another important issue that needs to be handled properly because for addictions like alcohol withdrawal could lead to death. Withdrawal leads to an unpleasant feeling that includes pain, chills, anxiety and more if one stops intake of the drug. This is one of the major reasons responsible for addicts not able to leave their addictions.

This brings us to two types of psychological experiences related to the brain namely liking and wanting. To explain the same with the help of an example like chocolate for example. Wanting would be the desire to have it once you see it in front of you while liking would be the experience you have once to eat it off. Now Dopamine produced by the brain is responsible for wanting only and not liking something.

We crave for more drugs only because drugs trigger the need for dopamine, a feeling of wanting in the brain. With repeated use of drugs the wanting thus grows but somewhere the liking goes stagnates or decreases.

Talking about involuntary addicts who take opioids prescribed by doctors for pain apparently do it to relieve themselves from pain and that is how they perceive their idea of pleasure. Though over time the doses has to be increased as they develop intolerance about it. As a result the wanting also grows leading to an addiction of sorts. Hyper active wanting leads to intense craving on seeing the drug or drug cue exposure. The effects are surely long lasting and genetic factors do lead to increased risk.

As responsible citizens and family members we also need to change our view of looking at addicts and that anyone of us can get affected by the same. Also, many a times addicts are aware of the pain and suffering they are causing themselves and others but the craving is much stronger than their will power to overcome it.

Well, we need to be compassionate and support people rather than distrust them or consider them as a disgrace.

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Do You Know Which Toothpaste Suits Your Teeth?

All of us brush our teeth on a daily basis and many of us twice a day as well. We pay attention on the toothbrush we buy and most of us are aware that we need to change our toothpaste every 3 months atleast. Now, one thing we do not pay attention is at the toothpaste and no one would deny with the fact that we have only one toothpaste brand at home and all of use use the same. Apparently, every individual has different teeth types and it is advisable to use a toothpaste that suits your teeth type to keep your smile intact for a long long time.

Do You Know Which Toothpaste Suits Your Teeth?

Before we choose a toothpaste we need to know the basic ingredients to lookout for while buying one. There are three main ingredients which form a toothpaste. They are Calcium carbonate, artificial sweetener and detergent. Detergent kills the bacteria and cleans as well. Calcium carbonate or silicates provide the abrasion required to eliminate stuck bacteria and food particles and artificial sweetener enhance the flavor because toothpaste with flouride and calcium carbonate doesn’t taste good at all. Now, let us find out the types of toothpastes and their suitability as well.

Herbal Toothpaste
As the name says, it is made from herbal extracts like cloves , ginger, oils and more. But, one thing to ensure is whether fluoride which is an essential ingredient of a toothpaste is there or not because without it, the toothpaste won’t be as effective.

Whitening Toothpaste
As we age our teeth start changing color and losing their whiteness. So, for people wanting to have white teeth, this toothpaste works well. It uses enzyme system and fluoride that whitens your teeth besides fighting germs. Some toothpastes even contain baking soda and peroxide for stain prevention and lightening color.

Toothpaste for Sensitivity
Some of us faces issues like tooth pain we we consume hot or cold beverages or particular type of food. Now, the reason behind the same is either a weak enamel or an exposed root. This is called tooth sensitivity and the doctor on diagnosis does recommend you to use the toothpaste that could fight it.

Flouride toothpastes
Flouride toothpaste does the role of strengthening teeth and preventing decay and is generally good for kids and adults.

Though, if you want to know what type of toothpaste suits your teeth then it is advisable to consult your dentist and start using the recommended one. This would help your eat and smile for a long long time without difficulty.

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